Abstract

We propose and demonstrate the use of the cladding stress-induced photoelastic effect to eliminate modal birefringence in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) ridge waveguides. Birefringence-free operation was achieved for waveguides with otherwise large birefringence by use of properly chosen thickness and stress of the upper cladding layer. With the stress levels typically found in cladding materials such as SiO2, the birefringence modification range can be as large as 10-3. In arrayed waveguide grating demultiplexers that were fabricated in a SOI platform, we demonstrated the reduction of the birefringence from 1.2×10-3 (without the upper cladding) to 4.5×10-5 when a 0.8µm oxide upper cladding with a stress of -320 MPa (compressive) was used. Because the index changes induced by the stress are orders of magnitude smaller than the waveguide core–cladding index contrast, the associated mode mismatch loss is negligible.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Jalali, Proc. SPIE 2997, 60 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delâge, Proc. SPIE 5117, 147 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. R. R. Whiteman, A. P. Knights, D. George, I. E. Day, A. Vonsovici, A. A. House, G. F. Hopper, and M. Asghari, Proc. SPIE 4997, 146 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, S. Janz, and D. Dalacu, presented at the 5th Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Taipei, Taiwan, December 15–19, 2003.
  6. A. Kilian, J. Kirchhof, B. Kuhlow, G. Przyrembel, and W. Wischmann, J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 193 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Nedler, E. K. Wildermuth, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, and H. Melchior, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1407 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Huang, Int. J. Solids Struct. 40, 1615 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. R. T. Pearson, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, J. W. Fraser, S. Janz, P. E. Jessop, and D.-X. Xu, Proc. SPIE 3953, 11 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D.-X. Xu, J.-M. Baribeau, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, S. Janz, M.-J. Picard, and W. N. Ye, to be presented at SiGe:Materials, Processing, and Devices Symposium, Hawaii, October 3–8, 2004).
  11. D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, S. Janz, M.-J. Picard, N. G. Tarr, and W. N. Ye, in Proceedings of the 16th LEOS Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), p. 590.

2003 (3)

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delâge, Proc. SPIE 5117, 147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Whiteman, A. P. Knights, D. George, I. E. Day, A. Vonsovici, A. A. House, G. F. Hopper, and M. Asghari, Proc. SPIE 4997, 146 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Huang, Int. J. Solids Struct. 40, 1615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

L. Vivien, S. Laval, B. Dumont, S. Lardenois, A. Koster, and E. Cassan, Opt. Commun. 210, 43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

M. R. T. Pearson, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, J. W. Fraser, S. Janz, P. E. Jessop, and D.-X. Xu, Proc. SPIE 3953, 11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Kilian, J. Kirchhof, B. Kuhlow, G. Przyrembel, and W. Wischmann, J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

C. Nedler, E. K. Wildermuth, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, and H. Melchior, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1407 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

B. Jalali, Proc. SPIE 2997, 60 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

R. R. Whiteman, A. P. Knights, D. George, I. E. Day, A. Vonsovici, A. A. House, G. F. Hopper, and M. Asghari, Proc. SPIE 4997, 146 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baribeau, J.-M.

D.-X. Xu, J.-M. Baribeau, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, S. Janz, M.-J. Picard, and W. N. Ye, to be presented at SiGe:Materials, Processing, and Devices Symposium, Hawaii, October 3–8, 2004).

Bezinger, A.

M. R. T. Pearson, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, J. W. Fraser, S. Janz, P. E. Jessop, and D.-X. Xu, Proc. SPIE 3953, 11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

L. Vivien, S. Laval, B. Dumont, S. Lardenois, A. Koster, and E. Cassan, Opt. Commun. 210, 43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cheben, P.

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delâge, Proc. SPIE 5117, 147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, J.-M. Baribeau, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, S. Janz, M.-J. Picard, and W. N. Ye, to be presented at SiGe:Materials, Processing, and Devices Symposium, Hawaii, October 3–8, 2004).

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, S. Janz, and D. Dalacu, presented at the 5th Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Taipei, Taiwan, December 15–19, 2003.

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, S. Janz, M.-J. Picard, N. G. Tarr, and W. N. Ye, in Proceedings of the 16th LEOS Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), p. 590.

Dalacu, D.

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, S. Janz, M.-J. Picard, N. G. Tarr, and W. N. Ye, in Proceedings of the 16th LEOS Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), p. 590.

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, S. Janz, and D. Dalacu, presented at the 5th Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Taipei, Taiwan, December 15–19, 2003.

D.-X. Xu, J.-M. Baribeau, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, S. Janz, M.-J. Picard, and W. N. Ye, to be presented at SiGe:Materials, Processing, and Devices Symposium, Hawaii, October 3–8, 2004).

Day, I. E.

R. R. Whiteman, A. P. Knights, D. George, I. E. Day, A. Vonsovici, A. A. House, G. F. Hopper, and M. Asghari, Proc. SPIE 4997, 146 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Delâge, A.

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delâge, Proc. SPIE 5117, 147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. R. T. Pearson, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, J. W. Fraser, S. Janz, P. E. Jessop, and D.-X. Xu, Proc. SPIE 3953, 11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, J.-M. Baribeau, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, S. Janz, M.-J. Picard, and W. N. Ye, to be presented at SiGe:Materials, Processing, and Devices Symposium, Hawaii, October 3–8, 2004).

Dumont, B.

L. Vivien, S. Laval, B. Dumont, S. Lardenois, A. Koster, and E. Cassan, Opt. Commun. 210, 43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, J. W.

M. R. T. Pearson, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, J. W. Fraser, S. Janz, P. E. Jessop, and D.-X. Xu, Proc. SPIE 3953, 11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

George, D.

R. R. Whiteman, A. P. Knights, D. George, I. E. Day, A. Vonsovici, A. A. House, G. F. Hopper, and M. Asghari, Proc. SPIE 4997, 146 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hopper, G. F.

R. R. Whiteman, A. P. Knights, D. George, I. E. Day, A. Vonsovici, A. A. House, G. F. Hopper, and M. Asghari, Proc. SPIE 4997, 146 (2003).
[CrossRef]

House, A. A.

R. R. Whiteman, A. P. Knights, D. George, I. E. Day, A. Vonsovici, A. A. House, G. F. Hopper, and M. Asghari, Proc. SPIE 4997, 146 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

M. Huang, Int. J. Solids Struct. 40, 1615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hunziker, W.

C. Nedler, E. K. Wildermuth, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, and H. Melchior, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1407 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

B. Jalali, Proc. SPIE 2997, 60 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Janz, S.

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delâge, Proc. SPIE 5117, 147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. R. T. Pearson, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, J. W. Fraser, S. Janz, P. E. Jessop, and D.-X. Xu, Proc. SPIE 3953, 11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, S. Janz, M.-J. Picard, N. G. Tarr, and W. N. Ye, in Proceedings of the 16th LEOS Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), p. 590.

D.-X. Xu, J.-M. Baribeau, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, S. Janz, M.-J. Picard, and W. N. Ye, to be presented at SiGe:Materials, Processing, and Devices Symposium, Hawaii, October 3–8, 2004).

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, S. Janz, and D. Dalacu, presented at the 5th Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Taipei, Taiwan, December 15–19, 2003.

Jessop, P. E.

M. R. T. Pearson, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, J. W. Fraser, S. Janz, P. E. Jessop, and D.-X. Xu, Proc. SPIE 3953, 11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kilian, A.

Kirchhof, J.

Knights, A. P.

R. R. Whiteman, A. P. Knights, D. George, I. E. Day, A. Vonsovici, A. A. House, G. F. Hopper, and M. Asghari, Proc. SPIE 4997, 146 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koster, A.

L. Vivien, S. Laval, B. Dumont, S. Lardenois, A. Koster, and E. Cassan, Opt. Commun. 210, 43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuhlow, B.

Lamontagne, B.

D.-X. Xu, J.-M. Baribeau, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, S. Janz, M.-J. Picard, and W. N. Ye, to be presented at SiGe:Materials, Processing, and Devices Symposium, Hawaii, October 3–8, 2004).

Lanker, M.

C. Nedler, E. K. Wildermuth, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, and H. Melchior, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1407 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lardenois, S.

L. Vivien, S. Laval, B. Dumont, S. Lardenois, A. Koster, and E. Cassan, Opt. Commun. 210, 43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Laval, S.

L. Vivien, S. Laval, B. Dumont, S. Lardenois, A. Koster, and E. Cassan, Opt. Commun. 210, 43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Melchior, H.

C. Nedler, E. K. Wildermuth, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, and H. Melchior, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1407 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nedler, C.

C. Nedler, E. K. Wildermuth, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, and H. Melchior, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1407 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, M. R. T.

M. R. T. Pearson, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, J. W. Fraser, S. Janz, P. E. Jessop, and D.-X. Xu, Proc. SPIE 3953, 11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Picard, M.-J.

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, S. Janz, M.-J. Picard, N. G. Tarr, and W. N. Ye, in Proceedings of the 16th LEOS Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), p. 590.

D.-X. Xu, J.-M. Baribeau, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, S. Janz, M.-J. Picard, and W. N. Ye, to be presented at SiGe:Materials, Processing, and Devices Symposium, Hawaii, October 3–8, 2004).

Przyrembel, G.

Tarr, N. G.

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, S. Janz, M.-J. Picard, N. G. Tarr, and W. N. Ye, in Proceedings of the 16th LEOS Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), p. 590.

Vivien, L.

L. Vivien, S. Laval, B. Dumont, S. Lardenois, A. Koster, and E. Cassan, Opt. Commun. 210, 43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vonsovici, A.

R. R. Whiteman, A. P. Knights, D. George, I. E. Day, A. Vonsovici, A. A. House, G. F. Hopper, and M. Asghari, Proc. SPIE 4997, 146 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Whiteman, R. R.

R. R. Whiteman, A. P. Knights, D. George, I. E. Day, A. Vonsovici, A. A. House, G. F. Hopper, and M. Asghari, Proc. SPIE 4997, 146 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wildermuth, E. K.

C. Nedler, E. K. Wildermuth, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, and H. Melchior, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1407 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wischmann, W.

Xu, D.-X.

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delâge, Proc. SPIE 5117, 147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. R. T. Pearson, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, J. W. Fraser, S. Janz, P. E. Jessop, and D.-X. Xu, Proc. SPIE 3953, 11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, S. Janz, M.-J. Picard, N. G. Tarr, and W. N. Ye, in Proceedings of the 16th LEOS Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), p. 590.

D.-X. Xu, J.-M. Baribeau, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, S. Janz, M.-J. Picard, and W. N. Ye, to be presented at SiGe:Materials, Processing, and Devices Symposium, Hawaii, October 3–8, 2004).

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, S. Janz, and D. Dalacu, presented at the 5th Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Taipei, Taiwan, December 15–19, 2003.

Ye, W. N.

D.-X. Xu, J.-M. Baribeau, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, S. Janz, M.-J. Picard, and W. N. Ye, to be presented at SiGe:Materials, Processing, and Devices Symposium, Hawaii, October 3–8, 2004).

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, S. Janz, M.-J. Picard, N. G. Tarr, and W. N. Ye, in Proceedings of the 16th LEOS Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), p. 590.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Nedler, E. K. Wildermuth, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, and H. Melchior, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1407 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Solids Struct. (1)

M. Huang, Int. J. Solids Struct. 40, 1615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. Vivien, S. Laval, B. Dumont, S. Lardenois, A. Koster, and E. Cassan, Opt. Commun. 210, 43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (4)

R. R. Whiteman, A. P. Knights, D. George, I. E. Day, A. Vonsovici, A. A. House, G. F. Hopper, and M. Asghari, Proc. SPIE 4997, 146 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Jalali, Proc. SPIE 2997, 60 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delâge, Proc. SPIE 5117, 147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. R. T. Pearson, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, J. W. Fraser, S. Janz, P. E. Jessop, and D.-X. Xu, Proc. SPIE 3953, 11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

D.-X. Xu, J.-M. Baribeau, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, S. Janz, M.-J. Picard, and W. N. Ye, to be presented at SiGe:Materials, Processing, and Devices Symposium, Hawaii, October 3–8, 2004).

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, S. Janz, M.-J. Picard, N. G. Tarr, and W. N. Ye, in Proceedings of the 16th LEOS Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), p. 590.

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, S. Janz, and D. Dalacu, presented at the 5th Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Taipei, Taiwan, December 15–19, 2003.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Cross section of a SOI ridge waveguide. (b) Calculated modal birefringence Δneff of rectangular waveguides as a function of etch depth D for W=1.6, 2.5 µm and tc=0.7 µm. Solid curves, Δneff including both geometrical and stress-induced birefringence for σfilm=-100 MPa; dashed curves, Δngeo (i.e., in the absence of stress).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Stress distributions of a SOI waveguide in (a) the x direction and (b) the y direction. Here W=1.83 µm and D=1.47 µm, corresponding to the fabricated rectangular waveguides in Fig. 3(a), for tc=1 µm and σfilm=-320 MPa. (c) Δneff as a function of tc and σfilm for waveguides with a top width of 1.8 µm, a bottom width of 4.0 µm, and D=1.47 µm, corresponding to the trapezoidal waveguides in Fig. 3(a).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Dependence of Δneff on tc for AWGs fabricated by wet (trapezoidal) and dry (vertical) etching to D=1.47 µm and σfilm=-320 MPa; (b) TE and TM spectra for a SOI AWG that is compensated for by 0.3- (top right) and 0.8- (bottom right) µm-thick SiO2 claddings with σfilm=-320 MPa.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Material Parameters Used in the Calculations for the Wavelength of 1550 nma

Equations (2)

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nx-n0=-C1σx-C2σy+σz,
ny-n0=-C1σy-C2σz+σx.

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