Abstract

We propose and demonstrate the use of the cladding stress-induced photoelastic effect to eliminate modal birefringence in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) ridge waveguides. Birefringence-free operation was achieved for waveguides with otherwise large birefringence by use of properly chosen thickness and stress of the upper cladding layer. With the stress levels typically found in cladding materials such as SiO<sub>2</sub>, the birefringence modification range can be as large as 10<sup>-3</sup>. In arrayed waveguide grating demultiplexers that were fabricated in a SOI platform, we demonstrated the reduction of the birefringence from 1.2 × 10<sup>-3</sup> (without the upper cladding) to 4.5 × 10<sup>-5</sup> when a 0.8-μm oxide upper cladding with a stress of -320 MPa (compressive) was used. Because the index changes induced by the stress are orders of magnitude smaller than the waveguide core–cladding index contrast, the associated mode mismatch loss is negligible.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Jalali, Proc. SPIE 2997, 60 (1997).
  2. P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delâge, Proc. SPIE 5117, 147 (2003).
  3. L. Vivien, S. Laval, B. Dumont, S. Lardenois, A. Koster, and E. Cassan, Opt. Commun. 210, 43 (2002).
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  8. M. Huang, Int. J. Solids Struct. 40, 1615 (2003).
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2003

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delâge, Proc. SPIE 5117, 147 (2003).

R. R. Whiteman, A. P. Knights, D. George, I. E. Day, A. Vonsovici, A. A. House, G. F. Hopper, and M. Asghari, Proc. SPIE 4997, 146 (2003).

M. Huang, Int. J. Solids Struct. 40, 1615 (2003).

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, S. Janz, M.-J. Picard, N. G. Tarr, and W. N. Ye, in Proceedings of the 16th LEOS Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), p. 590.

2002

L. Vivien, S. Laval, B. Dumont, S. Lardenois, A. Koster, and E. Cassan, Opt. Commun. 210, 43 (2002).

2000

A. Kilian, J. Kirchhof, B. Kuhlow, G. Przyrembel, and W. Wischmann, J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 193 (2000).

M. R. T. Pearson, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, J. W. Fraser, S. Janz, P. E. Jessop, and D.-X. Xu, Proc. SPIE 3953, 11 (2000).

1999

C. Nedler, E. K. Wildermuth, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, and H. Melchior, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1407 (1999).

1997

B. Jalali, Proc. SPIE 2997, 60 (1997).

Asghari, M.

R. R. Whiteman, A. P. Knights, D. George, I. E. Day, A. Vonsovici, A. A. House, G. F. Hopper, and M. Asghari, Proc. SPIE 4997, 146 (2003).

Baribeau, J.-M.

D.-X. Xu, J.-M. Baribeau, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, S. Janz, M.-J. Picard, and W. N. Ye, to be presented at SiGe:Materials, Processing, and Devices Symposium, Hawaii, October 3–8, 2004).

Bezinger, A.

M. R. T. Pearson, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, J. W. Fraser, S. Janz, P. E. Jessop, and D.-X. Xu, Proc. SPIE 3953, 11 (2000).

Cassan, E.

L. Vivien, S. Laval, B. Dumont, S. Lardenois, A. Koster, and E. Cassan, Opt. Commun. 210, 43 (2002).

Cheben, P.

D.-X. Xu, J.-M. Baribeau, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, S. Janz, M.-J. Picard, and W. N. Ye, to be presented at SiGe:Materials, Processing, and Devices Symposium, Hawaii, October 3–8, 2004).

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, S. Janz, and D. Dalacu, presented at the 5th Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Taipei, Taiwan December 15–19, 2003.

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, S. Janz, M.-J. Picard, N. G. Tarr, and W. N. Ye, in Proceedings of the 16th LEOS Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), p. 590.

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delâge, Proc. SPIE 5117, 147 (2003).

Dalacu, D.

D.-X. Xu, J.-M. Baribeau, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, S. Janz, M.-J. Picard, and W. N. Ye, to be presented at SiGe:Materials, Processing, and Devices Symposium, Hawaii, October 3–8, 2004).

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, S. Janz, and D. Dalacu, presented at the 5th Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Taipei, Taiwan December 15–19, 2003.

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, S. Janz, M.-J. Picard, N. G. Tarr, and W. N. Ye, in Proceedings of the 16th LEOS Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), p. 590.

Day, I. E.

R. R. Whiteman, A. P. Knights, D. George, I. E. Day, A. Vonsovici, A. A. House, G. F. Hopper, and M. Asghari, Proc. SPIE 4997, 146 (2003).

Delâge, A.

D.-X. Xu, J.-M. Baribeau, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, S. Janz, M.-J. Picard, and W. N. Ye, to be presented at SiGe:Materials, Processing, and Devices Symposium, Hawaii, October 3–8, 2004).

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delâge, Proc. SPIE 5117, 147 (2003).

M. R. T. Pearson, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, J. W. Fraser, S. Janz, P. E. Jessop, and D.-X. Xu, Proc. SPIE 3953, 11 (2000).

Dumont, B.

L. Vivien, S. Laval, B. Dumont, S. Lardenois, A. Koster, and E. Cassan, Opt. Commun. 210, 43 (2002).

Fraser, J. W.

M. R. T. Pearson, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, J. W. Fraser, S. Janz, P. E. Jessop, and D.-X. Xu, Proc. SPIE 3953, 11 (2000).

George, D.

R. R. Whiteman, A. P. Knights, D. George, I. E. Day, A. Vonsovici, A. A. House, G. F. Hopper, and M. Asghari, Proc. SPIE 4997, 146 (2003).

Hopper, G. F.

R. R. Whiteman, A. P. Knights, D. George, I. E. Day, A. Vonsovici, A. A. House, G. F. Hopper, and M. Asghari, Proc. SPIE 4997, 146 (2003).

House, A. A.

R. R. Whiteman, A. P. Knights, D. George, I. E. Day, A. Vonsovici, A. A. House, G. F. Hopper, and M. Asghari, Proc. SPIE 4997, 146 (2003).

Huang, M.

M. Huang, Int. J. Solids Struct. 40, 1615 (2003).

Hunziker, W.

C. Nedler, E. K. Wildermuth, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, and H. Melchior, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1407 (1999).

Jalali, B.

B. Jalali, Proc. SPIE 2997, 60 (1997).

Janz, S.

D.-X. Xu, J.-M. Baribeau, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, S. Janz, M.-J. Picard, and W. N. Ye, to be presented at SiGe:Materials, Processing, and Devices Symposium, Hawaii, October 3–8, 2004).

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, S. Janz, and D. Dalacu, presented at the 5th Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Taipei, Taiwan December 15–19, 2003.

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, S. Janz, M.-J. Picard, N. G. Tarr, and W. N. Ye, in Proceedings of the 16th LEOS Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), p. 590.

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delâge, Proc. SPIE 5117, 147 (2003).

M. R. T. Pearson, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, J. W. Fraser, S. Janz, P. E. Jessop, and D.-X. Xu, Proc. SPIE 3953, 11 (2000).

Jessop, P. E.

M. R. T. Pearson, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, J. W. Fraser, S. Janz, P. E. Jessop, and D.-X. Xu, Proc. SPIE 3953, 11 (2000).

Kilian, A.

Kirchhof, J.

Knights, A. P.

R. R. Whiteman, A. P. Knights, D. George, I. E. Day, A. Vonsovici, A. A. House, G. F. Hopper, and M. Asghari, Proc. SPIE 4997, 146 (2003).

Koster, A.

L. Vivien, S. Laval, B. Dumont, S. Lardenois, A. Koster, and E. Cassan, Opt. Commun. 210, 43 (2002).

Kuhlow, B.

Lamontagne, B.

D.-X. Xu, J.-M. Baribeau, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, S. Janz, M.-J. Picard, and W. N. Ye, to be presented at SiGe:Materials, Processing, and Devices Symposium, Hawaii, October 3–8, 2004).

Lanker, M.

C. Nedler, E. K. Wildermuth, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, and H. Melchior, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1407 (1999).

Lardenois, S.

L. Vivien, S. Laval, B. Dumont, S. Lardenois, A. Koster, and E. Cassan, Opt. Commun. 210, 43 (2002).

Laval, S.

L. Vivien, S. Laval, B. Dumont, S. Lardenois, A. Koster, and E. Cassan, Opt. Commun. 210, 43 (2002).

Melchior, H.

C. Nedler, E. K. Wildermuth, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, and H. Melchior, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1407 (1999).

Nedler, C.

C. Nedler, E. K. Wildermuth, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, and H. Melchior, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1407 (1999).

Pearson, M. R. T.

M. R. T. Pearson, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, J. W. Fraser, S. Janz, P. E. Jessop, and D.-X. Xu, Proc. SPIE 3953, 11 (2000).

Picard, M.-J.

D.-X. Xu, J.-M. Baribeau, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, S. Janz, M.-J. Picard, and W. N. Ye, to be presented at SiGe:Materials, Processing, and Devices Symposium, Hawaii, October 3–8, 2004).

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, S. Janz, M.-J. Picard, N. G. Tarr, and W. N. Ye, in Proceedings of the 16th LEOS Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), p. 590.

Przyrembel, G.

Tarr, N. G.

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, S. Janz, M.-J. Picard, N. G. Tarr, and W. N. Ye, in Proceedings of the 16th LEOS Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), p. 590.

Vivien, L.

L. Vivien, S. Laval, B. Dumont, S. Lardenois, A. Koster, and E. Cassan, Opt. Commun. 210, 43 (2002).

Vonsovici, A.

R. R. Whiteman, A. P. Knights, D. George, I. E. Day, A. Vonsovici, A. A. House, G. F. Hopper, and M. Asghari, Proc. SPIE 4997, 146 (2003).

Whiteman, R. R.

R. R. Whiteman, A. P. Knights, D. George, I. E. Day, A. Vonsovici, A. A. House, G. F. Hopper, and M. Asghari, Proc. SPIE 4997, 146 (2003).

Wildermuth, E. K.

C. Nedler, E. K. Wildermuth, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, and H. Melchior, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1407 (1999).

Wischmann, W.

Xu, D.-X.

D.-X. Xu, J.-M. Baribeau, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, S. Janz, M.-J. Picard, and W. N. Ye, to be presented at SiGe:Materials, Processing, and Devices Symposium, Hawaii, October 3–8, 2004).

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, S. Janz, and D. Dalacu, presented at the 5th Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Taipei, Taiwan December 15–19, 2003.

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, S. Janz, M.-J. Picard, N. G. Tarr, and W. N. Ye, in Proceedings of the 16th LEOS Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), p. 590.

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delâge, Proc. SPIE 5117, 147 (2003).

M. R. T. Pearson, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, J. W. Fraser, S. Janz, P. E. Jessop, and D.-X. Xu, Proc. SPIE 3953, 11 (2000).

Ye, W. N.

D.-X. Xu, J.-M. Baribeau, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, S. Janz, M.-J. Picard, and W. N. Ye, to be presented at SiGe:Materials, Processing, and Devices Symposium, Hawaii, October 3–8, 2004).

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, S. Janz, M.-J. Picard, N. G. Tarr, and W. N. Ye, in Proceedings of the 16th LEOS Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), p. 590.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

C. Nedler, E. K. Wildermuth, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, and H. Melchior, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1407 (1999).

Int. J. Solids Struct.

M. Huang, Int. J. Solids Struct. 40, 1615 (2003).

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Commun.

L. Vivien, S. Laval, B. Dumont, S. Lardenois, A. Koster, and E. Cassan, Opt. Commun. 210, 43 (2002).

Proc. SPIE

R. R. Whiteman, A. P. Knights, D. George, I. E. Day, A. Vonsovici, A. A. House, G. F. Hopper, and M. Asghari, Proc. SPIE 4997, 146 (2003).

B. Jalali, Proc. SPIE 2997, 60 (1997).

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delâge, Proc. SPIE 5117, 147 (2003).

M. R. T. Pearson, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, J. W. Fraser, S. Janz, P. E. Jessop, and D.-X. Xu, Proc. SPIE 3953, 11 (2000).

Other

D.-X. Xu, J.-M. Baribeau, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, S. Janz, M.-J. Picard, and W. N. Ye, to be presented at SiGe:Materials, Processing, and Devices Symposium, Hawaii, October 3–8, 2004).

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, S. Janz, M.-J. Picard, N. G. Tarr, and W. N. Ye, in Proceedings of the 16th LEOS Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), p. 590.

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, S. Janz, and D. Dalacu, presented at the 5th Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Taipei, Taiwan December 15–19, 2003.

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