Abstract

A high-sensitivity surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor based on the Mach–Zehnder interferometer design is presented. The novel feature of the new design is the use of a Wollaston prism through which the phase quantities of the p and s polarizations are interrogated simultaneously. Since SPR affects only the p polarization, the signal due to the s polarization can be used as the reference. Consequently, the differential phase between the two polarizations allows us to eliminate all common-path phase noise while keeping the phase change caused by the SPR effect. Experimental results obtained from glycerin–water mixtures indicate that the sensitivity limit of our scheme is 5.5×10-8 refractive-index units per 0.01° phase change. To our knowledge, this is a significant improvement over previously obtained results when gold was used as the sensor surface. Such an improvement in the sensitivity limit should allow SPR biosensors to become a possible replacement for conventional biosensing techniques based on fluorescence. Monitoring of the bovine serum albumin (BSA) binding reaction with BSA antibodies is also demonstrated.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. V. Kabashin and P. I. Nikitin, Opt. Commun. 150, 5 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. M. Chinowsky, J. G. Quinn, D. U. Bartholomew, R. Kaiser, and J. L. Elk, Sens. Actuators B 91, 266 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, Sens. Actuators B 85, 189 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. P. Ho, W. W. Lam, and S. Y. Wu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 3534 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, New York, 1988).
  7. R. C. Weast, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 68th ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla.), p. D-232.

2003

T. M. Chinowsky, J. G. Quinn, D. U. Bartholomew, R. Kaiser, and J. L. Elk, Sens. Actuators B 91, 266 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

H. P. Ho, W. W. Lam, and S. Y. Wu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 3534 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, Sens. Actuators B 85, 189 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. V. Kabashin and P. I. Nikitin, Opt. Commun. 150, 5 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1988

P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, New York, 1988).

Bartholomew, D. U.

T. M. Chinowsky, J. G. Quinn, D. U. Bartholomew, R. Kaiser, and J. L. Elk, Sens. Actuators B 91, 266 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Beloglazov, A. A.

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, Sens. Actuators B 85, 189 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chinowsky, T. M.

T. M. Chinowsky, J. G. Quinn, D. U. Bartholomew, R. Kaiser, and J. L. Elk, Sens. Actuators B 91, 266 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Elk, J. L.

T. M. Chinowsky, J. G. Quinn, D. U. Bartholomew, R. Kaiser, and J. L. Elk, Sens. Actuators B 91, 266 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grigorenko, A. N.

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, Sens. Actuators B 85, 189 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ho, H. P.

H. P. Ho, W. W. Lam, and S. Y. Wu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 3534 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huebner, A.

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, Sens. Actuators B 85, 189 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kabashin, A. V.

A. V. Kabashin and P. I. Nikitin, Opt. Commun. 150, 5 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, R.

T. M. Chinowsky, J. G. Quinn, D. U. Bartholomew, R. Kaiser, and J. L. Elk, Sens. Actuators B 91, 266 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuhne, C.

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, Sens. Actuators B 85, 189 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lam, W. W.

H. P. Ho, W. W. Lam, and S. Y. Wu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 3534 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, P. I.

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, Sens. Actuators B 85, 189 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kabashin and P. I. Nikitin, Opt. Commun. 150, 5 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Quinn, J. G.

T. M. Chinowsky, J. G. Quinn, D. U. Bartholomew, R. Kaiser, and J. L. Elk, Sens. Actuators B 91, 266 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Salzer, R.

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, Sens. Actuators B 85, 189 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Savchuk, A. I.

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, Sens. Actuators B 85, 189 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Savchuk, O. A.

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, Sens. Actuators B 85, 189 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Steiner, G.

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, Sens. Actuators B 85, 189 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Valeiko, M. V.

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, Sens. Actuators B 85, 189 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. Y.

H. P. Ho, W. W. Lam, and S. Y. Wu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 3534 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yee, S. S.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, New York, 1988).

Opt. Commun.

A. V. Kabashin and P. I. Nikitin, Opt. Commun. 150, 5 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

H. P. Ho, W. W. Lam, and S. Y. Wu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 3534 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B

T. M. Chinowsky, J. G. Quinn, D. U. Bartholomew, R. Kaiser, and J. L. Elk, Sens. Actuators B 91, 266 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, Sens. Actuators B 85, 189 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other

P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, New York, 1988).

R. C. Weast, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 68th ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla.), p. D-232.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for measurement of differential SPR phase shift indicating s and p polarizations on the figure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Real-time differential phase measurement of glycerin–water mixtures with various weight ratios.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variation of relative differential phase (reference to pure water) versus glycerin concentration.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Response curve of differential phase after sequential addition of PBS, BSA, nonspecific BSA antibody, and BSA antibody into sensor head, indicating detection of specific BSA–anti-BSA binding.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ksp=koεmetalεsampleεmetal+εsample1/2,
kx=konglass sin θinc=ksp,
rps=r12+r23 exp2ikz2d1+r12r23 exp2ikz2d,
rij=Zi-ZjZi+Zj,
Ip=Ip,ref+Ip,sig+2Ip,refIp,sig1/2 cosϕmodulation+ϕnoise+ϕp    for p polarization,Is=Is,ref+Is,sig+2Is,refIs,sig1/2 cosϕmodulation+ϕnoise+ϕs    for s polarization,

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