Abstract

The possibility of measuring a full Doppler flow depth profile in parallel by use of frequency-domain optical coherence tomography is demonstrated. The method is based on a local phase analysis of the backscattered signal and allows for imaging of bidirectional Doppler flow. The Doppler frequency limit is 5 kHz for the presented measurements and is set by half of the frame rate of the CCD detector array. We measured the flow of 0.3µm microspheres suspended in distilled water at controlled flow rates and in vitro human blood flow through a 200µm capillary with a real-time color-encoded Doppler tomogram rate of 2–3/s.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2003

2002

R. Leitgeb, I. Schmetterer, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, M. Wojtkowski, and A. F. Fercher, Proc. SPIE 4619, 16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

1998

T. Lindmo, D. J. Smithies, Z. Chen, J. S. Nelson, and T. Milner, Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 3045 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

1985

C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 1124 (1985).
[PubMed]

Bajraszewski, T.

M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski, and A. Kowalczyk, Proc. SPIE 4956, 50 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

de Boer, J.

Fercher, A. F.

R. A. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, Opt. Express 11, 889 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, I. Schmetterer, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, M. Wojtkowski, and A. F. Fercher, Proc. SPIE 4619, 16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Leitgeb, M. Wojtkowski, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, M. Sticker, and A. Kowalczyk, Opt. Lett. 25, 800 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher and C. K. Hitzenberger, in Optical Coherence Tomography in Medicine, Vol. 4 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences, T. Asakura, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1999), pp. 359–389.

Gordon, M. L.

Grunwald, J. E.

C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 1124 (1985).
[PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

R. A. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, Opt. Express 11, 889 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, I. Schmetterer, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, M. Wojtkowski, and A. F. Fercher, Proc. SPIE 4619, 16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Leitgeb, M. Wojtkowski, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, M. Sticker, and A. Kowalczyk, Opt. Lett. 25, 800 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher and C. K. Hitzenberger, in Optical Coherence Tomography in Medicine, Vol. 4 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences, T. Asakura, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1999), pp. 359–389.

Izatt, J. A.

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Arch. Ophthalmol. 121, 235 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalczyk, A.

M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski, and A. Kowalczyk, Proc. SPIE 4956, 50 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Leitgeb, M. Wojtkowski, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, M. Sticker, and A. Kowalczyk, Opt. Lett. 25, 800 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, R.

R. Leitgeb, I. Schmetterer, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, M. Wojtkowski, and A. F. Fercher, Proc. SPIE 4619, 16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Leitgeb, M. Wojtkowski, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, M. Sticker, and A. Kowalczyk, Opt. Lett. 25, 800 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, R. A.

Lindmo, T.

T. Lindmo, D. J. Smithies, Z. Chen, J. S. Nelson, and T. Milner, Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 3045 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, S.

Logean, E.

Malekafzali, A.

Miller, T. E.

Milner, T.

T. Lindmo, D. J. Smithies, Z. Chen, J. S. Nelson, and T. Milner, Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 3045 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mok, A.

Nelson, J.

Nelson, J. S.

T. Lindmo, D. J. Smithies, Z. Chen, J. S. Nelson, and T. Milner, Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 3045 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pekar, J.

Petrig, B. L.

C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 1124 (1985).
[PubMed]

Qi, B.

Riva, C. E.

E. Logean, L. Schmetterer, and C. E. Riva, Appl. Opt. 39, 2858 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 1124 (1985).
[PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Arch. Ophthalmol. 121, 235 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saxer, C.

Schmetterer, I.

R. Leitgeb, I. Schmetterer, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, M. Wojtkowski, and A. F. Fercher, Proc. SPIE 4619, 16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schmetterer, L.

Seng-Yue, E.

Sinclair, S. H.

C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 1124 (1985).
[PubMed]

Smithies, D. J.

T. Lindmo, D. J. Smithies, Z. Chen, J. S. Nelson, and T. Milner, Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 3045 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivas, S.

Sticker, M.

R. Leitgeb, I. Schmetterer, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, M. Wojtkowski, and A. F. Fercher, Proc. SPIE 4619, 16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Leitgeb, M. Wojtkowski, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, M. Sticker, and A. Kowalczyk, Opt. Lett. 25, 800 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Targowski, P.

M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski, and A. Kowalczyk, Proc. SPIE 4956, 50 (2003).
[CrossRef]

van Gemert, M.

Vitkin, I. A.

Wang, X.

Wilson, B. C.

Wojtkowski, M.

M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski, and A. Kowalczyk, Proc. SPIE 4956, 50 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Leitgeb, I. Schmetterer, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, M. Wojtkowski, and A. F. Fercher, Proc. SPIE 4619, 16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Leitgeb, M. Wojtkowski, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, M. Sticker, and A. Kowalczyk, Opt. Lett. 25, 800 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xiang, S.

Yang, V. X. D.

Yazdanfar, S.

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Arch. Ophthalmol. 121, 235 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

Appl. Opt.

Arch. Ophthalmol.

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Arch. Ophthalmol. 121, 235 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.

C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 1124 (1985).
[PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Med. Biol.

T. Lindmo, D. J. Smithies, Z. Chen, J. S. Nelson, and T. Milner, Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 3045 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

R. Leitgeb, I. Schmetterer, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, M. Wojtkowski, and A. F. Fercher, Proc. SPIE 4619, 16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski, and A. Kowalczyk, Proc. SPIE 4956, 50 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Springer Series in Optical Sciences

A. F. Fercher and C. K. Hitzenberger, in Optical Coherence Tomography in Medicine, Vol. 4 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences, T. Asakura, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1999), pp. 359–389.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup: SLD, superluminescent diode; FCs, fiber couplers; Ms, mirrors; SC, transverse scanner; OL, objective lens; S, sample; L, lens; FP, polarization controller; DG, diffraction grating; CL, camera lens; SYNC, synchronization module.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Flow profiles of microspheres suspended in water within a 1-mm capillary, together with parabolic flow profiles as expected from volume flow settings. (b) Intensity tomogram of the perfused 200µm capillary. (c) Intensity (solid curve) and velocity profile (curve with squares) for in vitro human blood flow through a 200µm capillary. (d) Three-dimensional flow front profile within the 200µm capillary.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time series of Doppler profiles of in vitro human blood flow that was reversed during recording without change of sample orientation.

Equations (1)

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vz=ΔΦz,τλ4πτ cosα,

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