Abstract

Counterpropagating light fields provide a stationary optical potential well for a Brownian particle. Introducing variability in the relative strengths of the counterpropagating beams allows us to create a more general configuration—the optical elevator. An optical elevator dynamically controls the axial location of the potential minimum where the particle finds a stable equilibrium position. We describe the implementation of multiple real-time reconfigurable optical elevators with the generalized phase contrast method for dynamic manipulation of polystyrene spheres and yeast cells S. cerevisiae in three dimensions.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chu, Opt. Lett. 11, 288 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. D. Wang, H. Yun, R. Landick, J. Gelles, and S. M. Block, Biophys. J. 72, 1335 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Liesener, M. Reicherter, T. Haist, and H. J. Tiziani, Opt. Lett. 24, 608 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Dufresne, G. C. Spalding, M. T. Dearing, S. A. Sheets, and D. G. Grier, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1810 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. L. Eriksen, V. R. Daria, and J. Glückstad, Opt. Express 10, 597 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. V. R. Daria, P. J. Rodrigo, and J. Glückstad, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 323 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. J. Rodrigo, V. R. Daria, and J. Glückstad, Opt. Express 12, 1117 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Glückstad, Nat. Mater. 3, 9 (2004).
  10. A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Constable, J. Kim, J. Mervis, F. Zarinetchi, and M. Prentiss, Opt. Lett. 18, 1867 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. C. Grover, A. G. Skirtach, R. C. Gauthier, and C. P. Grover, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 14 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. N. Liang, S. P. Smith, S. J. Metallo, I. S. Choi, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 13092 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Glückstad, “Phase contrast imaging,” U.S. patent6,011,874 (January4, 2000).
  15. J. Glückstad, Opt. Commun. 130, 225 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Glückstad and P. C. Mogensen, Appl. Opt. 40, 268 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. V. R. Daria, R. L. Eriksen, and J. Glückstad, J. Mod. Opt. 50, 1601 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. L. Eriksen, P. C. Mogensen, and J. Glückstad, Opt. Commun. 187, 325 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. Sinclair, P. Jordan, J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, and J. Cooper, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 409 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (4)

V. R. Daria, P. J. Rodrigo, and J. Glückstad, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Rodrigo, V. R. Daria, and J. Glückstad, Opt. Express 12, 1117 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

J. Glückstad, Nat. Mater. 3, 9 (2004).

G. Sinclair, P. Jordan, J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, and J. Cooper, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

V. R. Daria, R. L. Eriksen, and J. Glückstad, J. Mod. Opt. 50, 1601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (4)

R. L. Eriksen, P. C. Mogensen, and J. Glückstad, Opt. Commun. 187, 325 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Dufresne, G. C. Spalding, M. T. Dearing, S. A. Sheets, and D. G. Grier, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1810 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Glückstad and P. C. Mogensen, Appl. Opt. 40, 268 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Grover, A. G. Skirtach, R. C. Gauthier, and C. P. Grover, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 14 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. N. Liang, S. P. Smith, S. J. Metallo, I. S. Choi, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 13092 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

M. D. Wang, H. Yun, R. Landick, J. Gelles, and S. M. Block, Biophys. J. 72, 1335 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

J. Glückstad, Opt. Commun. 130, 225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

1986 (1)

1970 (1)

A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A.

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Block, S. M.

M. D. Wang, H. Yun, R. Landick, J. Gelles, and S. M. Block, Biophys. J. 72, 1335 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Svoboda, C. F. Schmidt, B. J. Schnapp, and S. M. Block, Nature 365, 721 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, I. S.

M. N. Liang, S. P. Smith, S. J. Metallo, I. S. Choi, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 13092 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

Constable, A.

Cooper, J.

G. Sinclair, P. Jordan, J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, and J. Cooper, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Daria, V. R.

P. J. Rodrigo, V. R. Daria, and J. Glückstad, Opt. Express 12, 1117 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

V. R. Daria, P. J. Rodrigo, and J. Glückstad, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Daria, R. L. Eriksen, and J. Glückstad, J. Mod. Opt. 50, 1601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Eriksen, V. R. Daria, and J. Glückstad, Opt. Express 10, 597 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dearing, M. T.

E. Dufresne, G. C. Spalding, M. T. Dearing, S. A. Sheets, and D. G. Grier, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1810 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dufresne, E.

E. Dufresne, G. C. Spalding, M. T. Dearing, S. A. Sheets, and D. G. Grier, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1810 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dziedzic, J. M.

Eriksen, R. L.

V. R. Daria, R. L. Eriksen, and J. Glückstad, J. Mod. Opt. 50, 1601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Eriksen, V. R. Daria, and J. Glückstad, Opt. Express 10, 597 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Eriksen, P. C. Mogensen, and J. Glückstad, Opt. Commun. 187, 325 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, R. C.

S. C. Grover, A. G. Skirtach, R. C. Gauthier, and C. P. Grover, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 14 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gelles, J.

M. D. Wang, H. Yun, R. Landick, J. Gelles, and S. M. Block, Biophys. J. 72, 1335 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glückstad, J.

V. R. Daria, P. J. Rodrigo, and J. Glückstad, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Glückstad, Nat. Mater. 3, 9 (2004).

P. J. Rodrigo, V. R. Daria, and J. Glückstad, Opt. Express 12, 1117 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

V. R. Daria, R. L. Eriksen, and J. Glückstad, J. Mod. Opt. 50, 1601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Eriksen, V. R. Daria, and J. Glückstad, Opt. Express 10, 597 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Eriksen, P. C. Mogensen, and J. Glückstad, Opt. Commun. 187, 325 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Glückstad and P. C. Mogensen, Appl. Opt. 40, 268 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Glückstad, Opt. Commun. 130, 225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Glückstad, “Phase contrast imaging,” U.S. patent6,011,874 (January4, 2000).

Grier, D. G.

E. Dufresne, G. C. Spalding, M. T. Dearing, S. A. Sheets, and D. G. Grier, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1810 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grover, C. P.

S. C. Grover, A. G. Skirtach, R. C. Gauthier, and C. P. Grover, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 14 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grover, S. C.

S. C. Grover, A. G. Skirtach, R. C. Gauthier, and C. P. Grover, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 14 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haist, T.

Jordan, P.

G. Sinclair, P. Jordan, J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, and J. Cooper, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

Landick, R.

M. D. Wang, H. Yun, R. Landick, J. Gelles, and S. M. Block, Biophys. J. 72, 1335 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leach, J.

G. Sinclair, P. Jordan, J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, and J. Cooper, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liang, M. N.

M. N. Liang, S. P. Smith, S. J. Metallo, I. S. Choi, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 13092 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liesener, J.

Mervis, J.

Metallo, S. J.

M. N. Liang, S. P. Smith, S. J. Metallo, I. S. Choi, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 13092 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mogensen, P. C.

J. Glückstad and P. C. Mogensen, Appl. Opt. 40, 268 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Eriksen, P. C. Mogensen, and J. Glückstad, Opt. Commun. 187, 325 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M. J.

G. Sinclair, P. Jordan, J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, and J. Cooper, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Prentiss, M.

M. N. Liang, S. P. Smith, S. J. Metallo, I. S. Choi, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 13092 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Constable, J. Kim, J. Mervis, F. Zarinetchi, and M. Prentiss, Opt. Lett. 18, 1867 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reicherter, M.

Rodrigo, P. J.

P. J. Rodrigo, V. R. Daria, and J. Glückstad, Opt. Express 12, 1117 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

V. R. Daria, P. J. Rodrigo, and J. Glückstad, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, C. F.

K. Svoboda, C. F. Schmidt, B. J. Schnapp, and S. M. Block, Nature 365, 721 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnapp, B. J.

K. Svoboda, C. F. Schmidt, B. J. Schnapp, and S. M. Block, Nature 365, 721 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheets, S. A.

E. Dufresne, G. C. Spalding, M. T. Dearing, S. A. Sheets, and D. G. Grier, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1810 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sinclair, G.

G. Sinclair, P. Jordan, J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, and J. Cooper, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Skirtach, A. G.

S. C. Grover, A. G. Skirtach, R. C. Gauthier, and C. P. Grover, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 14 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, S. P.

M. N. Liang, S. P. Smith, S. J. Metallo, I. S. Choi, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 13092 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Spalding, G. C.

E. Dufresne, G. C. Spalding, M. T. Dearing, S. A. Sheets, and D. G. Grier, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1810 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Svoboda, K.

K. Svoboda, C. F. Schmidt, B. J. Schnapp, and S. M. Block, Nature 365, 721 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tiziani, H. J.

Wang, M. D.

M. D. Wang, H. Yun, R. Landick, J. Gelles, and S. M. Block, Biophys. J. 72, 1335 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitesides, G. M.

M. N. Liang, S. P. Smith, S. J. Metallo, I. S. Choi, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 13092 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yun, H.

M. D. Wang, H. Yun, R. Landick, J. Gelles, and S. M. Block, Biophys. J. 72, 1335 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zarinetchi, F.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

V. R. Daria, P. J. Rodrigo, and J. Glückstad, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (1)

M. D. Wang, H. Yun, R. Landick, J. Gelles, and S. M. Block, Biophys. J. 72, 1335 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

S. C. Grover, A. G. Skirtach, R. C. Gauthier, and C. P. Grover, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 14 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mod. Opt. (2)

V. R. Daria, R. L. Eriksen, and J. Glückstad, J. Mod. Opt. 50, 1601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Sinclair, P. Jordan, J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, and J. Cooper, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

J. Glückstad, Nat. Mater. 3, 9 (2004).

Nature (1)

K. Svoboda, C. F. Schmidt, B. J. Schnapp, and S. M. Block, Nature 365, 721 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (2)

R. L. Eriksen, P. C. Mogensen, and J. Glückstad, Opt. Commun. 187, 325 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Glückstad, Opt. Commun. 130, 225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

R. L. Eriksen, V. R. Daria, and J. Glückstad, Opt. Express 10, 597 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Rodrigo, V. R. Daria, and J. Glückstad, Opt. Express 12, 1117 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

M. N. Liang, S. P. Smith, S. J. Metallo, I. S. Choi, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 13092 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

E. Dufresne, G. C. Spalding, M. T. Dearing, S. A. Sheets, and D. G. Grier, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1810 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. Glückstad, “Phase contrast imaging,” U.S. patent6,011,874 (January4, 2000).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram illustrating the generation of an array of optical elevators. The GPC system converts a phase pattern into a set of linearly polarized beams. A SPM subsequently transforms the generated beams into a spatially similar set of beams carrying arbitrary elliptic polarization states. The polarizing beam splitter separates the s-pol and the p-pol components, whose relative strengths are indicated by the shades of the arrows. Finally, pairs of orthogonally polarized beams are directed toward the sample volume to trap and manipulate micrometer scale particles.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measured relative powers of s-pol () and p-pol (●) components versus LC wave-plate voltage. The sum () of the two components is approximately unity. Inset, difference Pp-Ps versus LC voltage. (b) Power difference Pp-Ps versus axial trap position of a 3µm polystyrene sphere in an optical elevator with absolute total power of the order of 10-2 W.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dynamic axial-position control and simultaneous rotation of trapped particles in real-time reconfigurable arrays of optical elevators. The top and bottom rows show images of five microspheres set into orbit at planes (a) z=-10 µm, (b) z=0, (c) z=+10 µm and five yeast cells in a rotating cross pattern at (d) z=-5 µm, (e) z=0, (f) z=+5 µm, respectively. Dashed circles show the paths of the rotated particles.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T=TrTg=0cosϕgxm,yn/2sinϕrxm,yn/2-i sinϕgxm,yn/2cosϕrxm,yn/20cosϕgxm,yn/2cosϕrxm,yn/2+i sinϕgxm,yn/2sinϕrxm,yn/2.
Texpt=0-i sinϕg/20cosϕg/2.

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