Abstract

A monolithically integrated bacteriorhodopsin–semiconductor phototransceiver is demonstrated for the first time to the authors’ knowledge. In this novel biophotonic optical interconnect, the input photoexcitation is detected by bacteriorhodopsin (bR) that has been selectively deposited onto the gate of a GaAs-based field-effect transistor. The photovoltage developed across the bR is converted by the transistor into an amplified photocurrent, which drives an integrated light-emitting diode with a Ga0.37Al0.63As active region. Advantage is taken of the high-input impedance of the field-effect transistor, which matches the high internal resistance of bR. The input and output wavelengths are 594 and 655 nm, respectively. The transient response of the optoelectronic circuit to modulated input light has also been studied.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2003 (2)

Q. Li, J. A. Stuart, R. R. Birge, J. Xu, A. Stickrath, and P. Bhattacharya, Biosens. Bioelectron. 19, 869 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, P. Bhattacharya, and G. Váró, Biosens. Bioelectron. 19, 885 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2000 (2)

C. Moller, G. Buldt, N. A. Dencher, A. Engel, and D. J. Muller, J. Mol. Biol. 301, 869 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Chang, E. Y. Chang, C. C. Chung, and C. T. Kuo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 4699 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

F. T. Hong, Mater. Sci. Eng. C 4, 267 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

R. R. Birge, IEEE Comput. Sci. Eng. 25, 56 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Oesterhelt, C. Brauschle, and N. Hampp, Q. Rev. Biophys. 24, 425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971 (2)

D. Oesterhelt and W. Stoeckenius, Nature New Biol. 233, 149 (1971).
[CrossRef]

D. Oesterhelt and W. Stoeckenius, Methods Enzymol. 31, 667 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, P.

Q. Li, J. A. Stuart, R. R. Birge, J. Xu, A. Stickrath, and P. Bhattacharya, Biosens. Bioelectron. 19, 869 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, P. Bhattacharya, and G. Váró, Biosens. Bioelectron. 19, 885 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Bhattacharya, J. Xu, G. Varo, D. L. March, and R. R. Birge, Opt. Lett. 27, 839 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Birge, R. R.

Q. Li, J. A. Stuart, R. R. Birge, J. Xu, A. Stickrath, and P. Bhattacharya, Biosens. Bioelectron. 19, 869 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Bhattacharya, J. Xu, G. Varo, D. L. March, and R. R. Birge, Opt. Lett. 27, 839 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Birge, IEEE Comput. Sci. Eng. 25, 56 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brauschle, C.

D. Oesterhelt, C. Brauschle, and N. Hampp, Q. Rev. Biophys. 24, 425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buldt, G.

C. Moller, G. Buldt, N. A. Dencher, A. Engel, and D. J. Muller, J. Mol. Biol. 301, 869 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chang, E. Y.

H. Chang, E. Y. Chang, C. C. Chung, and C. T. Kuo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 4699 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H.

H. Chang, E. Y. Chang, C. C. Chung, and C. T. Kuo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 4699 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chung, C. C.

H. Chang, E. Y. Chang, C. C. Chung, and C. T. Kuo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 4699 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dencher, N. A.

C. Moller, G. Buldt, N. A. Dencher, A. Engel, and D. J. Muller, J. Mol. Biol. 301, 869 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Engel, A.

C. Moller, G. Buldt, N. A. Dencher, A. Engel, and D. J. Muller, J. Mol. Biol. 301, 869 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hampp, N.

D. Oesterhelt, C. Brauschle, and N. Hampp, Q. Rev. Biophys. 24, 425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, F. T.

F. T. Hong, Mater. Sci. Eng. C 4, 267 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C. T.

H. Chang, E. Y. Chang, C. C. Chung, and C. T. Kuo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 4699 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q.

Q. Li, J. A. Stuart, R. R. Birge, J. Xu, A. Stickrath, and P. Bhattacharya, Biosens. Bioelectron. 19, 869 (2003).
[CrossRef]

March, D. L.

Moller, C.

C. Moller, G. Buldt, N. A. Dencher, A. Engel, and D. J. Muller, J. Mol. Biol. 301, 869 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Muller, D. J.

C. Moller, G. Buldt, N. A. Dencher, A. Engel, and D. J. Muller, J. Mol. Biol. 301, 869 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Oesterhelt, D.

D. Oesterhelt, C. Brauschle, and N. Hampp, Q. Rev. Biophys. 24, 425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Oesterhelt and W. Stoeckenius, Methods Enzymol. 31, 667 (1971).
[CrossRef]

D. Oesterhelt and W. Stoeckenius, Nature New Biol. 233, 149 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Stickrath, A.

Q. Li, J. A. Stuart, R. R. Birge, J. Xu, A. Stickrath, and P. Bhattacharya, Biosens. Bioelectron. 19, 869 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stoeckenius, W.

D. Oesterhelt and W. Stoeckenius, Nature New Biol. 233, 149 (1971).
[CrossRef]

D. Oesterhelt and W. Stoeckenius, Methods Enzymol. 31, 667 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Stuart, J. A.

Q. Li, J. A. Stuart, R. R. Birge, J. Xu, A. Stickrath, and P. Bhattacharya, Biosens. Bioelectron. 19, 869 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Varo, G.

Váró, G.

J. Xu, P. Bhattacharya, and G. Váró, Biosens. Bioelectron. 19, 885 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

J. Xu, P. Bhattacharya, and G. Váró, Biosens. Bioelectron. 19, 885 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, J. A. Stuart, R. R. Birge, J. Xu, A. Stickrath, and P. Bhattacharya, Biosens. Bioelectron. 19, 869 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Bhattacharya, J. Xu, G. Varo, D. L. March, and R. R. Birge, Opt. Lett. 27, 839 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (2)

Q. Li, J. A. Stuart, R. R. Birge, J. Xu, A. Stickrath, and P. Bhattacharya, Biosens. Bioelectron. 19, 869 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, P. Bhattacharya, and G. Váró, Biosens. Bioelectron. 19, 885 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Comput. Sci. Eng. (1)

R. R. Birge, IEEE Comput. Sci. Eng. 25, 56 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Biol. (1)

C. Moller, G. Buldt, N. A. Dencher, A. Engel, and D. J. Muller, J. Mol. Biol. 301, 869 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Chang, E. Y. Chang, C. C. Chung, and C. T. Kuo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 4699 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. C (1)

F. T. Hong, Mater. Sci. Eng. C 4, 267 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Methods Enzymol. (1)

D. Oesterhelt and W. Stoeckenius, Methods Enzymol. 31, 667 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Nature New Biol. (1)

D. Oesterhelt and W. Stoeckenius, Nature New Biol. 233, 149 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Q. Rev. Biophys. (1)

D. Oesterhelt, C. Brauschle, and N. Hampp, Q. Rev. Biophys. 24, 425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Equivalent circuit of a bR–FET–LED phototransceiver: VDD, drain bias; D, drain; G, gate; S, source; ITO, indium tin oxide. (b) Schematic cross section of integrated devices with GaAs-based heterostructures with which transistors and LEDs are fabricated: HEMT, high electron mobility transistor; S.I., semi-insulating. (c) Photomicrograph of a monolithically integrated phototransceiver showing the bR deposited on the left-hand side of the circuit.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measured light–current characteristics of an Al0.37Ga0.63As LED. Inset, output spectral characteristics. (b) Temporal photocurrent response of the bR–MODFET photoreceiver to pulsed photoexcitation on the bR photodetector.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measured temporal light output characteristics of a LED with 3-s optical pulses incident upon bR, (b) variation of output LED light power with input photoexcitation power, (c) LED output with 10-ms input light pulses.

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