Abstract

A simple time-domain optical method for estimating the depth and concentration of fluorescent inclusions in turbid media is described. We demonstrate direct depth estimation of a localized fluorescent object from the temporal position of the temporal point-spread function maximum. The depth estimation permits recovery of the fluorophore concentration, both of which are essential quantities for optical molecular imaging studies. Since the maximum is independent of the fluorophore concentration, excitation laser power, detector gain, and other system-dependent factors, this method ensures a robust and efficient approach.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Cubeddu, G. Canti, P. Taroni, and G. Valentini, Photochem. Photobiol. 57, 480 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. F. Lesage and A. Belenkov, presented at the 2004 IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: From Nano to Macro, Arlington, Va., April 15–18, 2004.

2002

Y. Gu, Z. Qian, J. Chen, D. Blessington, N. Ramanujam, and B. Chance, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 172 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, J. P. Houston, and M. Gurfinkel, Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 6, 642 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cubeddu, D. Comelli, C. D'Andrea, P. Taroni, and G. Valentini, J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 35, R61 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Palmer, Y. Shibata, J. B. Kruskal, and R. E. Lenkinski, Proc. SPIE 4626, 166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Shives, Y. Xu, and H. Jiang, Opt. Express 10, 1557 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

V. Ntziachristos and R. Weissleder, Opt. Lett. 26, 893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Rice, M. D. Cable, and M. B. Nelson, J. Biol. Opt. 6, 432 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997

R. Cubeddu, G. Canti, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, and G. Valentini, Photochem. Photobiol. 56, 229 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1995

1994

1993

R. Cubeddu, G. Canti, P. Taroni, and G. Valentini, Photochem. Photobiol. 57, 480 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Bambot, J. R. Lakowitz, and G. Rao, Trends Biotechnol. 13, 106 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989

Bambot, S. B.

S. B. Bambot, J. R. Lakowitz, and G. Rao, Trends Biotechnol. 13, 106 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Belenkov, A.

F. Lesage and A. Belenkov, presented at the 2004 IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: From Nano to Macro, Arlington, Va., April 15–18, 2004.

Blessington, D.

Y. Gu, Z. Qian, J. Chen, D. Blessington, N. Ramanujam, and B. Chance, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 172 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Boas, D. A.

Burch, C. L.

Cable, M. D.

B. W. Rice, M. D. Cable, and M. B. Nelson, J. Biol. Opt. 6, 432 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Canti, G.

R. Cubeddu, G. Canti, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, and G. Valentini, Photochem. Photobiol. 56, 229 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Cubeddu, G. Canti, P. Taroni, and G. Valentini, Photochem. Photobiol. 57, 480 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

Chen, J.

Y. Gu, Z. Qian, J. Chen, D. Blessington, N. Ramanujam, and B. Chance, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 172 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Comelli, D.

R. Cubeddu, D. Comelli, C. D'Andrea, P. Taroni, and G. Valentini, J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 35, R61 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cubeddu, R.

R. Cubeddu, D. Comelli, C. D'Andrea, P. Taroni, and G. Valentini, J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 35, R61 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Cubeddu, G. Canti, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, and G. Valentini, Photochem. Photobiol. 56, 229 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Cubeddu, G. Canti, P. Taroni, and G. Valentini, Photochem. Photobiol. 57, 480 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D'Andrea, C.

R. Cubeddu, D. Comelli, C. D'Andrea, P. Taroni, and G. Valentini, J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 35, R61 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

Feld, M. S.

Gu, Y.

Y. Gu, Z. Qian, J. Chen, D. Blessington, N. Ramanujam, and B. Chance, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 172 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gurfinkel, M.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, J. P. Houston, and M. Gurfinkel, Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 6, 642 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Houston, J. P.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, J. P. Houston, and M. Gurfinkel, Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 6, 642 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itzkan, I.

Jiang, H.

Kruskal, J. B.

M. R. Palmer, Y. Shibata, J. B. Kruskal, and R. E. Lenkinski, Proc. SPIE 4626, 166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lakowitz, J. R.

S. B. Bambot, J. R. Lakowitz, and G. Rao, Trends Biotechnol. 13, 106 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lenkinski, R. E.

M. R. Palmer, Y. Shibata, J. B. Kruskal, and R. E. Lenkinski, Proc. SPIE 4626, 166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lesage, F.

F. Lesage and A. Belenkov, presented at the 2004 IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: From Nano to Macro, Arlington, Va., April 15–18, 2004.

Li, X. D.

Nelson, M. B.

B. W. Rice, M. D. Cable, and M. B. Nelson, J. Biol. Opt. 6, 432 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ntziachristos, V.

O'Leary, M. A.

Palmer, M. R.

M. R. Palmer, Y. Shibata, J. B. Kruskal, and R. E. Lenkinski, Proc. SPIE 4626, 166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, M. S.

Perelman, L. T.

Pifferi, A.

R. Cubeddu, G. Canti, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, and G. Valentini, Photochem. Photobiol. 56, 229 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Qian, Z.

Y. Gu, Z. Qian, J. Chen, D. Blessington, N. Ramanujam, and B. Chance, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 172 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ramanujam, N.

Y. Gu, Z. Qian, J. Chen, D. Blessington, N. Ramanujam, and B. Chance, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 172 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rao, G.

S. B. Bambot, J. R. Lakowitz, and G. Rao, Trends Biotechnol. 13, 106 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rice, B. W.

B. W. Rice, M. D. Cable, and M. B. Nelson, J. Biol. Opt. 6, 432 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sevick-Muraca, E. M.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, J. P. Houston, and M. Gurfinkel, Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 6, 642 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Sevick-Muraca and C. L. Burch, Opt. Lett. 19, 1928 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shibata, Y.

M. R. Palmer, Y. Shibata, J. B. Kruskal, and R. E. Lenkinski, Proc. SPIE 4626, 166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shives, E.

Taroni, P.

R. Cubeddu, D. Comelli, C. D'Andrea, P. Taroni, and G. Valentini, J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 35, R61 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Cubeddu, G. Canti, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, and G. Valentini, Photochem. Photobiol. 56, 229 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Cubeddu, G. Canti, P. Taroni, and G. Valentini, Photochem. Photobiol. 57, 480 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valentini, G.

R. Cubeddu, D. Comelli, C. D'Andrea, P. Taroni, and G. Valentini, J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 35, R61 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Cubeddu, G. Canti, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, and G. Valentini, Photochem. Photobiol. 56, 229 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Cubeddu, G. Canti, P. Taroni, and G. Valentini, Photochem. Photobiol. 57, 480 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Weissleder, R.

Wilson, B.

Wu, J.

Xu, Y.

Yodh, A. G.

Appl. Opt.

Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, J. P. Houston, and M. Gurfinkel, Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 6, 642 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biol. Opt.

B. W. Rice, M. D. Cable, and M. B. Nelson, J. Biol. Opt. 6, 432 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.

R. Cubeddu, D. Comelli, C. D'Andrea, P. Taroni, and G. Valentini, J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 35, R61 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Photochem. Photobiol.

R. Cubeddu, G. Canti, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, and G. Valentini, Photochem. Photobiol. 56, 229 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Cubeddu, G. Canti, P. Taroni, and G. Valentini, Photochem. Photobiol. 57, 480 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

M. R. Palmer, Y. Shibata, J. B. Kruskal, and R. E. Lenkinski, Proc. SPIE 4626, 166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

Y. Gu, Z. Qian, J. Chen, D. Blessington, N. Ramanujam, and B. Chance, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 172 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Trends Biotechnol.

S. B. Bambot, J. R. Lakowitz, and G. Rao, Trends Biotechnol. 13, 106 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other

F. Lesage and A. Belenkov, presented at the 2004 IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: From Nano to Macro, Arlington, Va., April 15–18, 2004.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental configuration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time position of the fluorescence TPSF maximum as a function of depth.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Concentration normalized fluorescence intensity as a function of depth (points overlap).

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Depth Estimation Results (Calibrated)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Concentration Estimation Results (Calibrated)

Tables Icon

Table 3 Depth Estimation Results (Theory)

Tables Icon

Table 4 Relative Concentration Ratio Recovery Results

Equations (1)

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ϕrs,rd,t=NVd3r0tdtErsr+rdr4πDrsrrdr×vnr4πDvt-tE3/2×exp-rsr+rdr24Dvt-tE×exp-μavt-tEexp-tE/ττ,

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