Abstract

We present experimental measurements of the peak splitting of the reflection spectra of fiber Bragg gratings as a result of birefringence induced by transverse loading of a multicore fiber. Measurements show that the splitting is a function of the applied load and the direction of the load relative to the azimuth of the fiber. A model for calculating the stress in the fiber that is due to an applied load is in good agreement with our experimental observations.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. M. Lawrence, D. V. Nelson, E. Udd, and T. Bennett, Exp. Mech. 39, 202 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. D. Gianino and B. Bendow, Appl. Opt. 20, 430 (1981).
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  3. K. Okamoto, T. Hosaka, and T. Edahiro, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2123 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. P. Varnham, D. N. Payne, A. J. Barlow, and R. D. Birch, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 332 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. L. Chu and R. A. Sammut, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 650 (1984).
  6. C. C. Ye, S. E. Staines, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1446 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. I. Abe, O. Frazao, R. N. Nogueira, H. J. Kalinowski, J. L. Pinto, and J. L. Santos, in Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 2003), pp. 96–99.
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  10. R. Gafsi and M. A. El-Sherif, Opt. Fiber Technol. Mater. Devices Syst. 6, 299 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

C. C. Ye, S. E. Staines, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1446 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

R. Gafsi and M. A. El-Sherif, Opt. Fiber Technol. Mater. Devices Syst. 6, 299 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

C. M. Lawrence, D. V. Nelson, E. Udd, and T. Bennett, Exp. Mech. 39, 202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

P. L. Chu and R. A. Sammut, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 650 (1984).

1983 (1)

M. P. Varnham, D. N. Payne, A. J. Barlow, and R. D. Birch, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 332 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

P. D. Gianino and B. Bendow, Appl. Opt. 20, 430 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Okamoto, T. Hosaka, and T. Edahiro, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2123 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Abe, I.

I. Abe, O. Frazao, R. N. Nogueira, H. J. Kalinowski, J. L. Pinto, and J. L. Santos, in Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 2003), pp. 96–99.

Albert, J.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Barlow, A. J.

M. P. Varnham, D. N. Payne, A. J. Barlow, and R. D. Birch, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 332 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Barton, J. S.

Bendow, B.

Bennett, T.

C. M. Lawrence, D. V. Nelson, E. Udd, and T. Bennett, Exp. Mech. 39, 202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

Bilodeau, F.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Birch, R. D.

M. P. Varnham, D. N. Payne, A. J. Barlow, and R. D. Birch, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 332 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Chu, P. L.

P. L. Chu and R. A. Sammut, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 650 (1984).

Edahiro, T.

K. Okamoto, T. Hosaka, and T. Edahiro, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2123 (1981).
[CrossRef]

El-Sherif, M. A.

R. Gafsi and M. A. El-Sherif, Opt. Fiber Technol. Mater. Devices Syst. 6, 299 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Flockhart, G. M. H.

Frazao, O.

I. Abe, O. Frazao, R. N. Nogueira, H. J. Kalinowski, J. L. Pinto, and J. L. Santos, in Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 2003), pp. 96–99.

Gafsi, R.

R. Gafsi and M. A. El-Sherif, Opt. Fiber Technol. Mater. Devices Syst. 6, 299 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gianino, P. D.

Hill, K. O.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hosaka, T.

K. Okamoto, T. Hosaka, and T. Edahiro, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2123 (1981).
[CrossRef]

James, S. W.

C. C. Ye, S. E. Staines, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1446 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D. C.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jones, J. D. C.

Kalinowski, H. J.

I. Abe, O. Frazao, R. N. Nogueira, H. J. Kalinowski, J. L. Pinto, and J. L. Santos, in Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 2003), pp. 96–99.

Lawrence, C. M.

C. M. Lawrence, D. V. Nelson, E. Udd, and T. Bennett, Exp. Mech. 39, 202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

MacPherson, W. N.

Malo, B.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, D. V.

C. M. Lawrence, D. V. Nelson, E. Udd, and T. Bennett, Exp. Mech. 39, 202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nogueira, R. N.

I. Abe, O. Frazao, R. N. Nogueira, H. J. Kalinowski, J. L. Pinto, and J. L. Santos, in Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 2003), pp. 96–99.

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto, T. Hosaka, and T. Edahiro, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2123 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. N.

M. P. Varnham, D. N. Payne, A. J. Barlow, and R. D. Birch, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 332 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Pinto, J. L.

I. Abe, O. Frazao, R. N. Nogueira, H. J. Kalinowski, J. L. Pinto, and J. L. Santos, in Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 2003), pp. 96–99.

Sammut, R. A.

P. L. Chu and R. A. Sammut, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 650 (1984).

Santos, J. L.

I. Abe, O. Frazao, R. N. Nogueira, H. J. Kalinowski, J. L. Pinto, and J. L. Santos, in Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 2003), pp. 96–99.

Staines, S. E.

C. C. Ye, S. E. Staines, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1446 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tatam, R. P.

C. C. Ye, S. E. Staines, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1446 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Udd, E.

C. M. Lawrence, D. V. Nelson, E. Udd, and T. Bennett, Exp. Mech. 39, 202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Varnham, M. P.

M. P. Varnham, D. N. Payne, A. J. Barlow, and R. D. Birch, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 332 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ye, C. C.

C. C. Ye, S. E. Staines, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1446 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Mech. (1)

C. M. Lawrence, D. V. Nelson, E. Udd, and T. Bennett, Exp. Mech. 39, 202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Okamoto, T. Hosaka, and T. Edahiro, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2123 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

M. P. Varnham, D. N. Payne, A. J. Barlow, and R. D. Birch, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 332 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Chu and R. A. Sammut, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 650 (1984).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. C. Ye, S. E. Staines, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1446 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Fiber Technol. Mater. Devices Syst. (1)

R. Gafsi and M. A. El-Sherif, Opt. Fiber Technol. Mater. Devices Syst. 6, 299 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (1)

I. Abe, O. Frazao, R. N. Nogueira, H. J. Kalinowski, J. L. Pinto, and J. L. Santos, in Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 2003), pp. 96–99.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Interrogation scheme used to measure MCF FBG reflection spectra. The MCF is located in a temperature-stabilized load test rig capable of applying loads up to 250 N to the 50-mm length of MCF fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflected FBG spectra for different orientations of MCF under a load of 205 N.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Birefringence-induced peak splitting due to increasing load.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Typical results illustrating the combined measurement of (a) reflection peaks and (b), (c) the effect of separating the polarization states by use of a polarization controller and a beam splitter.

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