Abstract

We evaluate a wavelength interrogation technique based on an arrayed waveguide grating (AWG). Initial results show that the Bragg wavelength of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors can be precisely interrogated by thermally scanning an AWG-based demultiplexer. The technique potentially offers a low-cost, compact, and high-performance solution for the interrogation of FBG distributed sensors and multisensor arrays.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. K. Smit and C. V. Dan, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 236 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Kaneko, A. Sugita, and K. Okamoto, IEICE Trans. Electron. 83, 860 (2000).
  3. Y. Hida, Y. Hibino, T. Kitoh, Y. Inoue, M. Itoh, T. Shibata, A. Sugita, and A. Himeno, Electron. Lett. 37, 576 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Niewczas, L. Dziuda, G. Fusiek, A. J. Willshire, J. R. McDonald, G. Thursby, D. Harvey, and W. C. Michie, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 52, 1092 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. J. Willshire, P. Niewczas, L. Dziuda, G. Fusiek, and J. R. McDonald, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 4 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Sano and T. Yoshino, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 132 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. C. C. Norman, D. J. Webb, and R. D. Pechstedt, Electron. Lett. 39, 1714 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. Li, D. C. Abeysinghe, and J. T. Boyd, Opt. Eng. 42, 431 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Komai, K. Kodate, K. Okamoto, and T. Kamiya, in Proceedings of the Ninth Microoptics Conference (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, Japan, 2003), pp. 194–197.
  10. Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, F. Hanawa, H. Takahashi, K. Hattori, and S. Sumida, Electron. Lett. 33, 1945 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y.-J. Rao, in Optical Fiber Sensor Technology, K. T. V. Grattan and B. T. Meggitt, eds. (Chapman & Hall, London, 1998), Vol. 2, pp. 335–389.
  12. T. Miya, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 38 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. J. Willshire, P. Niewczas, L. Dziuda, G. Fusiek, and J. R. McDonald, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

Y. Sano and T. Yoshino, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 132 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. C. C. Norman, D. J. Webb, and R. D. Pechstedt, Electron. Lett. 39, 1714 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Li, D. C. Abeysinghe, and J. T. Boyd, Opt. Eng. 42, 431 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Niewczas, L. Dziuda, G. Fusiek, A. J. Willshire, J. R. McDonald, G. Thursby, D. Harvey, and W. C. Michie, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 52, 1092 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Y. Hida, Y. Hibino, T. Kitoh, Y. Inoue, M. Itoh, T. Shibata, A. Sugita, and A. Himeno, Electron. Lett. 37, 576 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

A. Kaneko, A. Sugita, and K. Okamoto, IEICE Trans. Electron. 83, 860 (2000).

T. Miya, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 38 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, F. Hanawa, H. Takahashi, K. Hattori, and S. Sumida, Electron. Lett. 33, 1945 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. K. Smit and C. V. Dan, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Abeysinghe, D. C.

W. Li, D. C. Abeysinghe, and J. T. Boyd, Opt. Eng. 42, 431 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, J. T.

W. Li, D. C. Abeysinghe, and J. T. Boyd, Opt. Eng. 42, 431 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dan, C. V.

M. K. Smit and C. V. Dan, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dziuda, L.

A. J. Willshire, P. Niewczas, L. Dziuda, G. Fusiek, and J. R. McDonald, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Niewczas, L. Dziuda, G. Fusiek, A. J. Willshire, J. R. McDonald, G. Thursby, D. Harvey, and W. C. Michie, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 52, 1092 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fusiek, G.

A. J. Willshire, P. Niewczas, L. Dziuda, G. Fusiek, and J. R. McDonald, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Niewczas, L. Dziuda, G. Fusiek, A. J. Willshire, J. R. McDonald, G. Thursby, D. Harvey, and W. C. Michie, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 52, 1092 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hanawa, F.

Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, F. Hanawa, H. Takahashi, K. Hattori, and S. Sumida, Electron. Lett. 33, 1945 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, D.

P. Niewczas, L. Dziuda, G. Fusiek, A. J. Willshire, J. R. McDonald, G. Thursby, D. Harvey, and W. C. Michie, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 52, 1092 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hattori, K.

Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, F. Hanawa, H. Takahashi, K. Hattori, and S. Sumida, Electron. Lett. 33, 1945 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hibino, Y.

Y. Hida, Y. Hibino, T. Kitoh, Y. Inoue, M. Itoh, T. Shibata, A. Sugita, and A. Himeno, Electron. Lett. 37, 576 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hida, Y.

Y. Hida, Y. Hibino, T. Kitoh, Y. Inoue, M. Itoh, T. Shibata, A. Sugita, and A. Himeno, Electron. Lett. 37, 576 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Himeno, A.

Y. Hida, Y. Hibino, T. Kitoh, Y. Inoue, M. Itoh, T. Shibata, A. Sugita, and A. Himeno, Electron. Lett. 37, 576 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, Y.

Y. Hida, Y. Hibino, T. Kitoh, Y. Inoue, M. Itoh, T. Shibata, A. Sugita, and A. Himeno, Electron. Lett. 37, 576 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, F. Hanawa, H. Takahashi, K. Hattori, and S. Sumida, Electron. Lett. 33, 1945 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, M.

Y. Hida, Y. Hibino, T. Kitoh, Y. Inoue, M. Itoh, T. Shibata, A. Sugita, and A. Himeno, Electron. Lett. 37, 576 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kamiya, T.

Y. Komai, K. Kodate, K. Okamoto, and T. Kamiya, in Proceedings of the Ninth Microoptics Conference (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, Japan, 2003), pp. 194–197.

Kaneko, A.

A. Kaneko, A. Sugita, and K. Okamoto, IEICE Trans. Electron. 83, 860 (2000).

Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, F. Hanawa, H. Takahashi, K. Hattori, and S. Sumida, Electron. Lett. 33, 1945 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kitoh, T.

Y. Hida, Y. Hibino, T. Kitoh, Y. Inoue, M. Itoh, T. Shibata, A. Sugita, and A. Himeno, Electron. Lett. 37, 576 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kodate, K.

Y. Komai, K. Kodate, K. Okamoto, and T. Kamiya, in Proceedings of the Ninth Microoptics Conference (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, Japan, 2003), pp. 194–197.

Komai, Y.

Y. Komai, K. Kodate, K. Okamoto, and T. Kamiya, in Proceedings of the Ninth Microoptics Conference (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, Japan, 2003), pp. 194–197.

Li, W.

W. Li, D. C. Abeysinghe, and J. T. Boyd, Opt. Eng. 42, 431 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McDonald, J. R.

A. J. Willshire, P. Niewczas, L. Dziuda, G. Fusiek, and J. R. McDonald, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Niewczas, L. Dziuda, G. Fusiek, A. J. Willshire, J. R. McDonald, G. Thursby, D. Harvey, and W. C. Michie, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 52, 1092 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Michie, W. C.

P. Niewczas, L. Dziuda, G. Fusiek, A. J. Willshire, J. R. McDonald, G. Thursby, D. Harvey, and W. C. Michie, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 52, 1092 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miya, T.

T. Miya, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 38 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Niewczas, P.

A. J. Willshire, P. Niewczas, L. Dziuda, G. Fusiek, and J. R. McDonald, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Niewczas, L. Dziuda, G. Fusiek, A. J. Willshire, J. R. McDonald, G. Thursby, D. Harvey, and W. C. Michie, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 52, 1092 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Norman, D. C. C.

D. C. C. Norman, D. J. Webb, and R. D. Pechstedt, Electron. Lett. 39, 1714 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

A. Kaneko, A. Sugita, and K. Okamoto, IEICE Trans. Electron. 83, 860 (2000).

Y. Komai, K. Kodate, K. Okamoto, and T. Kamiya, in Proceedings of the Ninth Microoptics Conference (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, Japan, 2003), pp. 194–197.

Pechstedt, R. D.

D. C. C. Norman, D. J. Webb, and R. D. Pechstedt, Electron. Lett. 39, 1714 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rao, Y.-J.

Y.-J. Rao, in Optical Fiber Sensor Technology, K. T. V. Grattan and B. T. Meggitt, eds. (Chapman & Hall, London, 1998), Vol. 2, pp. 335–389.

Sano, Y.

Shibata, T.

Y. Hida, Y. Hibino, T. Kitoh, Y. Inoue, M. Itoh, T. Shibata, A. Sugita, and A. Himeno, Electron. Lett. 37, 576 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M. K.

M. K. Smit and C. V. Dan, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sugita, A.

Y. Hida, Y. Hibino, T. Kitoh, Y. Inoue, M. Itoh, T. Shibata, A. Sugita, and A. Himeno, Electron. Lett. 37, 576 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Kaneko, A. Sugita, and K. Okamoto, IEICE Trans. Electron. 83, 860 (2000).

Sumida, S.

Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, F. Hanawa, H. Takahashi, K. Hattori, and S. Sumida, Electron. Lett. 33, 1945 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, F. Hanawa, H. Takahashi, K. Hattori, and S. Sumida, Electron. Lett. 33, 1945 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thursby, G.

P. Niewczas, L. Dziuda, G. Fusiek, A. J. Willshire, J. R. McDonald, G. Thursby, D. Harvey, and W. C. Michie, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 52, 1092 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Webb, D. J.

D. C. C. Norman, D. J. Webb, and R. D. Pechstedt, Electron. Lett. 39, 1714 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Willshire, A. J.

A. J. Willshire, P. Niewczas, L. Dziuda, G. Fusiek, and J. R. McDonald, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Niewczas, L. Dziuda, G. Fusiek, A. J. Willshire, J. R. McDonald, G. Thursby, D. Harvey, and W. C. Michie, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 52, 1092 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, T.

Electron. Lett. (3)

Y. Hida, Y. Hibino, T. Kitoh, Y. Inoue, M. Itoh, T. Shibata, A. Sugita, and A. Himeno, Electron. Lett. 37, 576 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. C. C. Norman, D. J. Webb, and R. D. Pechstedt, Electron. Lett. 39, 1714 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, F. Hanawa, H. Takahashi, K. Hattori, and S. Sumida, Electron. Lett. 33, 1945 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

T. Miya, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 38 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Smit and C. V. Dan, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (2)

P. Niewczas, L. Dziuda, G. Fusiek, A. J. Willshire, J. R. McDonald, G. Thursby, D. Harvey, and W. C. Michie, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 52, 1092 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Willshire, P. Niewczas, L. Dziuda, G. Fusiek, and J. R. McDonald, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

A. Kaneko, A. Sugita, and K. Okamoto, IEICE Trans. Electron. 83, 860 (2000).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Eng. (1)

W. Li, D. C. Abeysinghe, and J. T. Boyd, Opt. Eng. 42, 431 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

Y. Komai, K. Kodate, K. Okamoto, and T. Kamiya, in Proceedings of the Ninth Microoptics Conference (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, Japan, 2003), pp. 194–197.

Y.-J. Rao, in Optical Fiber Sensor Technology, K. T. V. Grattan and B. T. Meggitt, eds. (Chapman & Hall, London, 1998), Vol. 2, pp. 335–389.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of an AWG-based demultiplexer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Setup for the wavelength interrogation of distributed FBG sensors by an AWG-based demultiplexer. PD1, PD2, PDn, detectors.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Illustration of the wavelength interrogation of a FBG sensor by thermally scanning an AWG-based demultiplexer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Wavelength drift of AWG channel 22 as a function of temperature.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental results of a typical AWG transmission peak and a FBG reflection peak.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Interrogation results of two FBG temperature distributed sensors by thermally scanning an AWG-based demultiplexer.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ΔLNg=mλc,
λcT=λcT0+ΔTmdNgΔLdT,
1ΔLdNgΔLdT=1×10-51/°C.
λcT=λcT0+10-5ΔLmΔT.

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