Using Stokes-vectors formalism, we present a simple model describing steady and dynamic characteristics of all-fiber Raman lasers. This model allows us to describe experimental behaviors that are not yet understood in Raman lasers. In lasers made with standard fibers we show theoretically that weak birefringence and the optical Kerr effect lead to the emergence of unstable regimes similar to those recently observed in experiments [Opt. Lett. 28, 2464 (2003)]. However, the model shows that lasers made with polarization-maintaining fibers are always stable, as evidenced in experiments.
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