Abstract

An experimental tracking optical coherence tomography (OCT) system has been clinically tested. The prototype instrument uses a secondary sensing beam and steering mirrors to compensate for eye motion with a closed-loop bandwidth of 1 kHz and tracking accuracy, to within less than the OCT beam diameter. The retinal tracker improved image registration accuracy to <1 transverse pixel <60 µm. Composite OCT images averaged over multiple scans and visits show a sharp fine structure limited only by transverse pixel size. As the resolution of clinical OCT systems improves, the capability to reproducibly map complex structures in the living eye at high resolution will lead to improved understanding of disease processes and improved sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic procedures.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2004 (1)

2003 (3)

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. A. White, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, Appl. Opt. 42, 4621 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Aguirre, P. Hsiung, T. H. Ko, I. Hartl, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 28, 2064 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Guedes, J. S. Schuman, E. Hertzmark, A. Correnti, R. Mancini, G. Wollstein, D. Lederer, S. Voskanian, L. Velazquez, H. M. Pakter, T. Pedut Kloizman, J. G. Fujimoto, and C. Mattox, Ophthalmology 110, 177 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

Aguirre, A. D.

Bouma, B. E.

Cense, B.

Chen, T. C.

Correnti, A.

V. Guedes, J. S. Schuman, E. Hertzmark, A. Correnti, R. Mancini, G. Wollstein, D. Lederer, S. Voskanian, L. Velazquez, H. M. Pakter, T. Pedut Kloizman, J. G. Fujimoto, and C. Mattox, Ophthalmology 110, 177 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. F.

Elsner, A. E.

Fercher, A. F.

Ferguson, R. D.

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. A. White, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, Appl. Opt. 42, 4621 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Ferguson, “Servo tracking system utilizing phase-sensitive detection of reflectance,” U.S. patent5,767,941 (June16, 1998).

Fujimoto, J. G.

V. Guedes, J. S. Schuman, E. Hertzmark, A. Correnti, R. Mancini, G. Wollstein, D. Lederer, S. Voskanian, L. Velazquez, H. M. Pakter, T. Pedut Kloizman, J. G. Fujimoto, and C. Mattox, Ophthalmology 110, 177 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Aguirre, P. Hsiung, T. H. Ko, I. Hartl, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 28, 2064 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guedes, V.

V. Guedes, J. S. Schuman, E. Hertzmark, A. Correnti, R. Mancini, G. Wollstein, D. Lederer, S. Voskanian, L. Velazquez, H. M. Pakter, T. Pedut Kloizman, J. G. Fujimoto, and C. Mattox, Ophthalmology 110, 177 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hammer, D. X.

Hartl, I.

Hertzmark, E.

V. Guedes, J. S. Schuman, E. Hertzmark, A. Correnti, R. Mancini, G. Wollstein, D. Lederer, S. Voskanian, L. Velazquez, H. M. Pakter, T. Pedut Kloizman, J. G. Fujimoto, and C. Mattox, Ophthalmology 110, 177 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsiung, P.

Izatt, J. A.

Keitgeb, R.

Ko, T. H.

Kowalczyk, A.

Lederer, D.

V. Guedes, J. S. Schuman, E. Hertzmark, A. Correnti, R. Mancini, G. Wollstein, D. Lederer, S. Voskanian, L. Velazquez, H. M. Pakter, T. Pedut Kloizman, J. G. Fujimoto, and C. Mattox, Ophthalmology 110, 177 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magill, J. C.

Mancini, R.

V. Guedes, J. S. Schuman, E. Hertzmark, A. Correnti, R. Mancini, G. Wollstein, D. Lederer, S. Voskanian, L. Velazquez, H. M. Pakter, T. Pedut Kloizman, J. G. Fujimoto, and C. Mattox, Ophthalmology 110, 177 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mattox, C.

V. Guedes, J. S. Schuman, E. Hertzmark, A. Correnti, R. Mancini, G. Wollstein, D. Lederer, S. Voskanian, L. Velazquez, H. M. Pakter, T. Pedut Kloizman, J. G. Fujimoto, and C. Mattox, Ophthalmology 110, 177 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nassif, N.

Pakter, H. M.

V. Guedes, J. S. Schuman, E. Hertzmark, A. Correnti, R. Mancini, G. Wollstein, D. Lederer, S. Voskanian, L. Velazquez, H. M. Pakter, T. Pedut Kloizman, J. G. Fujimoto, and C. Mattox, Ophthalmology 110, 177 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, B. H.

Park, G. H.

Pedut Kloizman, T.

V. Guedes, J. S. Schuman, E. Hertzmark, A. Correnti, R. Mancini, G. Wollstein, D. Lederer, S. Voskanian, L. Velazquez, H. M. Pakter, T. Pedut Kloizman, J. G. Fujimoto, and C. Mattox, Ophthalmology 110, 177 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pierce, M. C.

Rollins, A. M.

Schuman, J. S.

V. Guedes, J. S. Schuman, E. Hertzmark, A. Correnti, R. Mancini, G. Wollstein, D. Lederer, S. Voskanian, L. Velazquez, H. M. Pakter, T. Pedut Kloizman, J. G. Fujimoto, and C. Mattox, Ophthalmology 110, 177 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Velazquez, L.

V. Guedes, J. S. Schuman, E. Hertzmark, A. Correnti, R. Mancini, G. Wollstein, D. Lederer, S. Voskanian, L. Velazquez, H. M. Pakter, T. Pedut Kloizman, J. G. Fujimoto, and C. Mattox, Ophthalmology 110, 177 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voskanian, S.

V. Guedes, J. S. Schuman, E. Hertzmark, A. Correnti, R. Mancini, G. Wollstein, D. Lederer, S. Voskanian, L. Velazquez, H. M. Pakter, T. Pedut Kloizman, J. G. Fujimoto, and C. Mattox, Ophthalmology 110, 177 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, R. H.

Westphal, V.

White, M. A.

Wojtkowski, M.

Wollstein, G.

V. Guedes, J. S. Schuman, E. Hertzmark, A. Correnti, R. Mancini, G. Wollstein, D. Lederer, S. Voskanian, L. Velazquez, H. M. Pakter, T. Pedut Kloizman, J. G. Fujimoto, and C. Mattox, Ophthalmology 110, 177 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yazdanfar, S.

Yun, S. H.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical schematic of TOCT. The 3-D layout is flattened to two dimensions for clarity. R0 and P0 indicate the retinal and pupil planes of the eye, respetively; R1 and P1 are optically conjugate to those planes. OL and SL are the ophthalmoscopic and scan lenses; RT, retinal tracker; CR, confocal reflectometer; D1, D2, dichroic beam splitters; L1–L3, fiber collimating lenses; TG, tracking galvanometer-driven mirrors; OCT G, OCT beam galvanometer-driven mirrors; DS, dither resonant scanners; S1, split aperture; NIR, near-infrared.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Composite peripapillary OCT images co-added from three visits of 20 scans each: a, fundus image (single frame); b, with tracking; c, without tracking. S, superior; T, temporal; I, inferior; N, nasal. The scale bar is 1.0 mm. The small white circles in a and the arrows in b indicate the location of blood vessels.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Radial disk OCT scans from one subject on three successive visits: a–i, scans taken with tracking; j, composite image created from scans a–i; k–s, scans taken without tracking. t, composite image created from scans k–s. The vertical lines indicate the FWHM edge of the disk cup. V, visit number; R, run number. The scale bar is 0.5 mm.

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