Abstract

We observed that laser-induced cavitation bubbles in water can be trapped in a self-focused laser beam. Both optical imaging and acoustic detection have been utilized to confirm bubble trapping. Transverse and longitudinal trapping forces were measured to be as large as 87 and 11 pN, respectively. This result is contrary to conventional wisdom, since the mechanism of trapping in conventional optical tweezers implies that a low-index particle (a bubble being the limiting case) should be antitrapped.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. F. Gaitan, L. A. Crum, C. C. Church, and R. A. Roy, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 91, 3166 (1992).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2003 (2)

S. M. Milas, J. Y. Ye, T. B. Norris, L. P. Balogh, J. R. Baker, K. W. Hollman, S. Emelianov, and M. O’Donnell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 994 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Milas, J. Y. Ye, T. B. Norris, K. W. Hollman, S. Emelianov, and M. O’Donnell, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 50, 517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. P. Brenner, S. Hilgenfeldt, and D. Lohse, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 425 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

S. Putterman, P. G. Evans, G. Vazquez, and K. Weninger, Nature 409, 782 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, W. Sibbertt, and K. Dholakia, Opt. Lett. 26, 863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3582 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Berry, N. R. Hechnberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1575 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

K. T. Gahagan and G. A. Swartzlander, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 524 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur and S. L. Chin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4406 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

W. D. Wang, H. Yin, R. Landick, J. Gelles, and S. M. Block, Biophys. J. 72, 1335 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (3)

J. T. Finer, R. M. Simmons, and J. A. Spudich, Nature 368, 113 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Svoboda and S. M. Block, Ann. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 23, 247 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Rhee, T. S. Sosnowski, T. B. Norris, J. A. Arns, and W. S. Colburn, Opt. Lett. 19, 1550 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

A. Ashkin, Biophys. J. 61, 569 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. F. Gaitan, L. A. Crum, C. C. Church, and R. A. Roy, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 91, 3166 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane, Nature 330, 769 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

Arns, J. A.

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, Biophys. J. 61, 569 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane, Nature 330, 769 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chu, Opt. Lett. 11, 288 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Baker, J. R.

S. M. Milas, J. Y. Ye, T. B. Norris, L. P. Balogh, J. R. Baker, K. W. Hollman, S. Emelianov, and M. O’Donnell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 994 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Balogh, L. P.

S. M. Milas, J. Y. Ye, T. B. Norris, L. P. Balogh, J. R. Baker, K. W. Hollman, S. Emelianov, and M. O’Donnell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 994 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Berry, D. W.

D. W. Berry, N. R. Hechnberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1575 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Block, S. M.

W. D. Wang, H. Yin, R. Landick, J. Gelles, and S. M. Block, Biophys. J. 72, 1335 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Svoboda and S. M. Block, Ann. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 23, 247 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brenner, M. P.

M. P. Brenner, S. Hilgenfeldt, and D. Lohse, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 425 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brodeur, A.

A. Brodeur and S. L. Chin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4406 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

A. Brodeur and S. L. Chin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4406 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

Church, C. C.

D. F. Gaitan, L. A. Crum, C. C. Church, and R. A. Roy, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 91, 3166 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Colburn, W. S.

Crum, L. A.

D. F. Gaitan, L. A. Crum, C. C. Church, and R. A. Roy, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 91, 3166 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dholakia, K.

Dziedzic, J. M.

Emelianov, S.

S. M. Milas, J. Y. Ye, T. B. Norris, L. P. Balogh, J. R. Baker, K. W. Hollman, S. Emelianov, and M. O’Donnell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 994 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Milas, J. Y. Ye, T. B. Norris, K. W. Hollman, S. Emelianov, and M. O’Donnell, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 50, 517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Evans, P. G.

S. Putterman, P. G. Evans, G. Vazquez, and K. Weninger, Nature 409, 782 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finer, J. T.

J. T. Finer, R. M. Simmons, and J. A. Spudich, Nature 368, 113 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaeta, A. L.

A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3582 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gahagan, K.

K. Gahagan, “Optical trapping of microparticles and biological structures,” Ph.D. dissertation (Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, Mass., 1998).

Gahagan, K. T.

Gaitan, D. F.

D. F. Gaitan, L. A. Crum, C. C. Church, and R. A. Roy, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 91, 3166 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gelles, J.

W. D. Wang, H. Yin, R. Landick, J. Gelles, and S. M. Block, Biophys. J. 72, 1335 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hechnberg, N. R.

D. W. Berry, N. R. Hechnberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1575 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hilgenfeldt, S.

M. P. Brenner, S. Hilgenfeldt, and D. Lohse, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 425 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hollman, K. W.

S. M. Milas, J. Y. Ye, T. B. Norris, K. W. Hollman, S. Emelianov, and M. O’Donnell, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 50, 517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Milas, J. Y. Ye, T. B. Norris, L. P. Balogh, J. R. Baker, K. W. Hollman, S. Emelianov, and M. O’Donnell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 994 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Landick, R.

W. D. Wang, H. Yin, R. Landick, J. Gelles, and S. M. Block, Biophys. J. 72, 1335 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lohse, D.

M. P. Brenner, S. Hilgenfeldt, and D. Lohse, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 425 (2002).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, M. P.

Milas, S. M.

S. M. Milas, J. Y. Ye, T. B. Norris, K. W. Hollman, S. Emelianov, and M. O’Donnell, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 50, 517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Milas, J. Y. Ye, T. B. Norris, L. P. Balogh, J. R. Baker, K. W. Hollman, S. Emelianov, and M. O’Donnell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 994 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Norris, T. B.

S. M. Milas, J. Y. Ye, T. B. Norris, L. P. Balogh, J. R. Baker, K. W. Hollman, S. Emelianov, and M. O’Donnell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 994 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Milas, J. Y. Ye, T. B. Norris, K. W. Hollman, S. Emelianov, and M. O’Donnell, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 50, 517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Rhee, T. S. Sosnowski, T. B. Norris, J. A. Arns, and W. S. Colburn, Opt. Lett. 19, 1550 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Donnell, M.

S. M. Milas, J. Y. Ye, T. B. Norris, K. W. Hollman, S. Emelianov, and M. O’Donnell, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 50, 517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Milas, J. Y. Ye, T. B. Norris, L. P. Balogh, J. R. Baker, K. W. Hollman, S. Emelianov, and M. O’Donnell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 994 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Paterson, L.

Putterman, S.

S. Putterman, P. G. Evans, G. Vazquez, and K. Weninger, Nature 409, 782 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rhee, J. K.

Roy, R. A.

D. F. Gaitan, L. A. Crum, C. C. Church, and R. A. Roy, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 91, 3166 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H.

D. W. Berry, N. R. Hechnberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1575 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sibbertt, W.

Simmons, R. M.

J. T. Finer, R. M. Simmons, and J. A. Spudich, Nature 368, 113 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sosnowski, T. S.

Spudich, J. A.

J. T. Finer, R. M. Simmons, and J. A. Spudich, Nature 368, 113 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svoboda, K.

K. Svoboda and S. M. Block, Ann. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 23, 247 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Swartzlander, G. A.

Vazquez, G.

S. Putterman, P. G. Evans, G. Vazquez, and K. Weninger, Nature 409, 782 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, W. D.

W. D. Wang, H. Yin, R. Landick, J. Gelles, and S. M. Block, Biophys. J. 72, 1335 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weninger, K.

S. Putterman, P. G. Evans, G. Vazquez, and K. Weninger, Nature 409, 782 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamane, T.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane, Nature 330, 769 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, J. Y.

S. M. Milas, J. Y. Ye, T. B. Norris, L. P. Balogh, J. R. Baker, K. W. Hollman, S. Emelianov, and M. O’Donnell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 994 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Milas, J. Y. Ye, T. B. Norris, K. W. Hollman, S. Emelianov, and M. O’Donnell, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 50, 517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yin, H.

W. D. Wang, H. Yin, R. Landick, J. Gelles, and S. M. Block, Biophys. J. 72, 1335 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. (1)

K. Svoboda and S. M. Block, Ann. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 23, 247 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. M. Milas, J. Y. Ye, T. B. Norris, L. P. Balogh, J. R. Baker, K. W. Hollman, S. Emelianov, and M. O’Donnell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 994 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (2)

W. D. Wang, H. Yin, R. Landick, J. Gelles, and S. M. Block, Biophys. J. 72, 1335 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, Biophys. J. 61, 569 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control (1)

S. M. Milas, J. Y. Ye, T. B. Norris, K. W. Hollman, S. Emelianov, and M. O’Donnell, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 50, 517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

D. F. Gaitan, L. A. Crum, C. C. Church, and R. A. Roy, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 91, 3166 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

D. W. Berry, N. R. Hechnberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1575 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (3)

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane, Nature 330, 769 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Putterman, P. G. Evans, G. Vazquez, and K. Weninger, Nature 409, 782 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Finer, R. M. Simmons, and J. A. Spudich, Nature 368, 113 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

A. Brodeur and S. L. Chin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4406 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3582 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

M. P. Brenner, S. Hilgenfeldt, and D. Lohse, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 425 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

K. Gahagan, “Optical trapping of microparticles and biological structures,” Ph.D. dissertation (Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, Mass., 1998).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup for investigating the bubble trapping in a SFLB.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Consecutive video images of pure water irradiated from below by 100-fs laser pulses with average power of 210 mW. The time interval is 33.7 ms between each frame except for the last one, which was taken 2 min later. A bubble is created and trapped at 3.5 mm from the cuvette bottom surface by a SFLB. (b) Schematic of the bubble-trapping mechanism. The solid lines represent light rays in the presence of a bubble generated at the self-focus, and the dotted curves represent self-focused light rays in the absence of the bubble. The dashed curves indicate the geometric focus, which is above the self-focus. Thus, the bubble is pushed downward by a gradient force until it is balanced by the longitudinal radiation pressure and buoyant forces. The transverse confinement is achieved with strong radiation pressure as a result of total internal reflection of rays with an incident angle exceeding a critical angle. (c) Wave-field plot of ultrasonic echo signals from bubbles. One bubble was pushed down when created, then reached a balanced position indicated by the horizontal line of pulse echoes. Bubble sizes were measured via the ascension rate of untrapped bubbles after the shutter was closed.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Video image showing that four bubbles are trapped under 500-mW laser irradiation and (b) wave-field plot of ultrasonic echo signals from the four trapped bubbles.

Equations (2)

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Fd=6πηRbV,
Rb=9ηV2gρw-ρgas1/2,

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