Abstract

The threshold for the fabrication of fiber Bragg gratings with ultrafast 800-nm radiation and a phase mask was studied in SMF-28 and all-silica core fiber by use of 125-fs pulses. High-pressure molecular hydrogen loading (H2 loading) was observed to significantly lower the grating writing threshold in standard Ge-doped telecommunication fiber. No reduction was observed with all-silica core fiber. The index change appeared to be confined to the Ge-doped core region of the fiber. Gratings in H2-loaded SMF-28 had thermal annealing behavior similar to UV-induced gratings. Unlike UV-induced H2-loaded gratings, no absorption associated with Ge–OH defect formation was observed.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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2004 (1)

2003 (2)

2001 (2)

K.-I. Kawamura, N. Sarukura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1038 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, Opt. Lett. 26, 93 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

Brodeur, A.

Davis, K. M.

Ding, H.

Feit, M. D.

Friebele, E. J.

T.-E. Tsai, G. M. Williams, and E. J. Friebele, Opt. Lett. 22, 224 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-E. Tsai and E. J. Friebele, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides: Applications and Fundamentals, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper JMA4.

Garcia, J. F.

Grobnic, D.

Henderson, G.

Herman, S.

Hirano, M.

K.-I. Kawamura, N. Sarukura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1038 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Hosono, H.

K.-I. Kawamura, N. Sarukura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1038 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, K.-I.

K.-I. Kawamura, N. Sarukura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1038 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lu, P.

Mazur, E.

Mihailov, S. J.

Miura, K.

Perryt, M. D.

Rubenchik, A. M.

Sarukura, N.

K.-I. Kawamura, N. Sarukura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1038 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schaffer, C. B.

Shore, B. W.

Smelser, C. W.

Stuart, B. C.

Sugimoto, N.

Tsai, T.-E.

T.-E. Tsai, G. M. Williams, and E. J. Friebele, Opt. Lett. 22, 224 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-E. Tsai and E. J. Friebele, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides: Applications and Fundamentals, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper JMA4.

Unruh, J.

Walker, R. B.

Williams, G. M.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical microscope images of ultrafast IR laser-induced gratings in SMF-28 fiber with a 3.21µm pitch mask. The laser beam is incident from the left of the image. (a) Grating written in unloaded fiber with 400µJ pulses. The grating structure clearly extends into the cladding region. (b) Grating structure in H2-loaded fiber written with 220µJ pulses. The structure in loaded fiber is clearly confined to the core region.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Annealing data for femtosecond IR (filled circles and squares) and cw UV (open circles and squares) gratings. The lower annealing curves are for gratings with an initial refractive-index modulation of 1×10-5. The upper two curves are for gratings with an initial index modulation of 1×10-3. Clearly the annealing behavior is similar for both laser sources.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Ultrafast Grating Formation Thresholds

Equations (1)

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Ith=Eth×1.6Area×τ=110 µJ×1.62×10-4 cm2×125fs=7×1012 W/cm2.

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