Abstract

The temporal characteristics of ultrashort hard-x-ray pulses generated in a femtosecond-laser-driven x-ray diode are investigated for what is believed to be the first time. Copper Kα x-ray pulses with a duration of a few picoseconds are measured with a jitter-free x-ray streak camera.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Chen, I. V. Tomov, and P. Rentzepis, J. Chem. Phys. 104, 10001 (1996).
  2. J. P. Girardeau-Montaut, B. Kiraly, C. Girardeau-Montaut, and H. Leboutet, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 452, 361 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Fill, J. Bayerl, and R. Tomassini, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2190 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Ihee, V. A. Lobashov, U. M. Gomez, B. M. Goodson, R. Srinivasan, C. Y. Ruan, and A. H. Zewail, Science 291, 458 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Cao, Z. Hao, H. Park, C. Tao, D. Kau, and L. Blaszczyk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1044 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Egbert, B. Mader, B. Tkachenko, C. Fallnich, B. N. Chichkov, H. Stiel, and P. V. Nickles, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2328 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Egbert and B. N. Chichkov, Proc. SPIE 4978, 92 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Belzile, J. C. Kieffer, C. Y. Cote, T. Oksenhaendler, and D. Kaplan, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1617 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Pisani, U. Andiel, K. Eidmann, K. Witte, I. Uschmann, A. Morak, E. Förster, and R. Sauerbrey, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2772 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B.-L. Quian and H. E. Elsayed-Ali, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 462 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Aeschlimann, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, H. E. Elsayed-Ali, R. J. D. Miller, C. Cao, Y. Gao, and D. A. Mantell, J. Chem. Phys. 102, 8606 (1995).

2004 (1)

F. Pisani, U. Andiel, K. Eidmann, K. Witte, I. Uschmann, A. Morak, E. Förster, and R. Sauerbrey, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2772 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

J. Cao, Z. Hao, H. Park, C. Tao, D. Kau, and L. Blaszczyk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1044 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Egbert and B. N. Chichkov, Proc. SPIE 4978, 92 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

C. Belzile, J. C. Kieffer, C. Y. Cote, T. Oksenhaendler, and D. Kaplan, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1617 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Egbert, B. Mader, B. Tkachenko, C. Fallnich, B. N. Chichkov, H. Stiel, and P. V. Nickles, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Fill, J. Bayerl, and R. Tomassini, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B.-L. Quian and H. E. Elsayed-Ali, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 462 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

H. Ihee, V. A. Lobashov, U. M. Gomez, B. M. Goodson, R. Srinivasan, C. Y. Ruan, and A. H. Zewail, Science 291, 458 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

J. P. Girardeau-Montaut, B. Kiraly, C. Girardeau-Montaut, and H. Leboutet, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 452, 361 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

P. Chen, I. V. Tomov, and P. Rentzepis, J. Chem. Phys. 104, 10001 (1996).

1995 (1)

M. Aeschlimann, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, H. E. Elsayed-Ali, R. J. D. Miller, C. Cao, Y. Gao, and D. A. Mantell, J. Chem. Phys. 102, 8606 (1995).

Aeschlimann, M.

M. Aeschlimann, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, H. E. Elsayed-Ali, R. J. D. Miller, C. Cao, Y. Gao, and D. A. Mantell, J. Chem. Phys. 102, 8606 (1995).

Andiel, U.

F. Pisani, U. Andiel, K. Eidmann, K. Witte, I. Uschmann, A. Morak, E. Förster, and R. Sauerbrey, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2772 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bayerl, J.

E. Fill, J. Bayerl, and R. Tomassini, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Belzile, C.

C. Belzile, J. C. Kieffer, C. Y. Cote, T. Oksenhaendler, and D. Kaplan, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1617 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Blaszczyk, L.

J. Cao, Z. Hao, H. Park, C. Tao, D. Kau, and L. Blaszczyk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1044 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cao, C.

M. Aeschlimann, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, H. E. Elsayed-Ali, R. J. D. Miller, C. Cao, Y. Gao, and D. A. Mantell, J. Chem. Phys. 102, 8606 (1995).

Cao, J.

J. Cao, Z. Hao, H. Park, C. Tao, D. Kau, and L. Blaszczyk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1044 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.

P. Chen, I. V. Tomov, and P. Rentzepis, J. Chem. Phys. 104, 10001 (1996).

Chichkov, B. N.

A. Egbert and B. N. Chichkov, Proc. SPIE 4978, 92 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Egbert, B. Mader, B. Tkachenko, C. Fallnich, B. N. Chichkov, H. Stiel, and P. V. Nickles, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cote, C. Y.

C. Belzile, J. C. Kieffer, C. Y. Cote, T. Oksenhaendler, and D. Kaplan, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1617 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Egbert, A.

A. Egbert and B. N. Chichkov, Proc. SPIE 4978, 92 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Egbert, B. Mader, B. Tkachenko, C. Fallnich, B. N. Chichkov, H. Stiel, and P. V. Nickles, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eidmann, K.

F. Pisani, U. Andiel, K. Eidmann, K. Witte, I. Uschmann, A. Morak, E. Förster, and R. Sauerbrey, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2772 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Elsayed-Ali, H. E.

B.-L. Quian and H. E. Elsayed-Ali, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 462 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Aeschlimann, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, H. E. Elsayed-Ali, R. J. D. Miller, C. Cao, Y. Gao, and D. A. Mantell, J. Chem. Phys. 102, 8606 (1995).

Fallnich, C.

A. Egbert, B. Mader, B. Tkachenko, C. Fallnich, B. N. Chichkov, H. Stiel, and P. V. Nickles, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fill, E.

E. Fill, J. Bayerl, and R. Tomassini, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Förster, E.

F. Pisani, U. Andiel, K. Eidmann, K. Witte, I. Uschmann, A. Morak, E. Förster, and R. Sauerbrey, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2772 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

M. Aeschlimann, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, H. E. Elsayed-Ali, R. J. D. Miller, C. Cao, Y. Gao, and D. A. Mantell, J. Chem. Phys. 102, 8606 (1995).

Girardeau-Montaut, C.

J. P. Girardeau-Montaut, B. Kiraly, C. Girardeau-Montaut, and H. Leboutet, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 452, 361 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Girardeau-Montaut, J. P.

J. P. Girardeau-Montaut, B. Kiraly, C. Girardeau-Montaut, and H. Leboutet, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 452, 361 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gomez, U. M.

H. Ihee, V. A. Lobashov, U. M. Gomez, B. M. Goodson, R. Srinivasan, C. Y. Ruan, and A. H. Zewail, Science 291, 458 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goodson, B. M.

H. Ihee, V. A. Lobashov, U. M. Gomez, B. M. Goodson, R. Srinivasan, C. Y. Ruan, and A. H. Zewail, Science 291, 458 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hao, Z.

J. Cao, Z. Hao, H. Park, C. Tao, D. Kau, and L. Blaszczyk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1044 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ihee, H.

H. Ihee, V. A. Lobashov, U. M. Gomez, B. M. Goodson, R. Srinivasan, C. Y. Ruan, and A. H. Zewail, Science 291, 458 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaplan, D.

C. Belzile, J. C. Kieffer, C. Y. Cote, T. Oksenhaendler, and D. Kaplan, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1617 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kau, D.

J. Cao, Z. Hao, H. Park, C. Tao, D. Kau, and L. Blaszczyk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1044 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kieffer, J. C.

C. Belzile, J. C. Kieffer, C. Y. Cote, T. Oksenhaendler, and D. Kaplan, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1617 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kiraly, B.

J. P. Girardeau-Montaut, B. Kiraly, C. Girardeau-Montaut, and H. Leboutet, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 452, 361 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Leboutet, H.

J. P. Girardeau-Montaut, B. Kiraly, C. Girardeau-Montaut, and H. Leboutet, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 452, 361 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lobashov, V. A.

H. Ihee, V. A. Lobashov, U. M. Gomez, B. M. Goodson, R. Srinivasan, C. Y. Ruan, and A. H. Zewail, Science 291, 458 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mader, B.

A. Egbert, B. Mader, B. Tkachenko, C. Fallnich, B. N. Chichkov, H. Stiel, and P. V. Nickles, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mantell, D. A.

M. Aeschlimann, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, H. E. Elsayed-Ali, R. J. D. Miller, C. Cao, Y. Gao, and D. A. Mantell, J. Chem. Phys. 102, 8606 (1995).

Miller, R. J. D.

M. Aeschlimann, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, H. E. Elsayed-Ali, R. J. D. Miller, C. Cao, Y. Gao, and D. A. Mantell, J. Chem. Phys. 102, 8606 (1995).

Morak, A.

F. Pisani, U. Andiel, K. Eidmann, K. Witte, I. Uschmann, A. Morak, E. Förster, and R. Sauerbrey, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2772 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nickles, P. V.

A. Egbert, B. Mader, B. Tkachenko, C. Fallnich, B. N. Chichkov, H. Stiel, and P. V. Nickles, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Oksenhaendler, T.

C. Belzile, J. C. Kieffer, C. Y. Cote, T. Oksenhaendler, and D. Kaplan, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1617 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.

J. Cao, Z. Hao, H. Park, C. Tao, D. Kau, and L. Blaszczyk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1044 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pisani, F.

F. Pisani, U. Andiel, K. Eidmann, K. Witte, I. Uschmann, A. Morak, E. Förster, and R. Sauerbrey, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2772 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Quian, B.-L.

B.-L. Quian and H. E. Elsayed-Ali, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 462 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rentzepis, P.

P. Chen, I. V. Tomov, and P. Rentzepis, J. Chem. Phys. 104, 10001 (1996).

Ruan, C. Y.

H. Ihee, V. A. Lobashov, U. M. Gomez, B. M. Goodson, R. Srinivasan, C. Y. Ruan, and A. H. Zewail, Science 291, 458 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sauerbrey, R.

F. Pisani, U. Andiel, K. Eidmann, K. Witte, I. Uschmann, A. Morak, E. Förster, and R. Sauerbrey, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2772 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schmuttenmaer, C. A.

M. Aeschlimann, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, H. E. Elsayed-Ali, R. J. D. Miller, C. Cao, Y. Gao, and D. A. Mantell, J. Chem. Phys. 102, 8606 (1995).

Srinivasan, R.

H. Ihee, V. A. Lobashov, U. M. Gomez, B. M. Goodson, R. Srinivasan, C. Y. Ruan, and A. H. Zewail, Science 291, 458 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stiel, H.

A. Egbert, B. Mader, B. Tkachenko, C. Fallnich, B. N. Chichkov, H. Stiel, and P. V. Nickles, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tao, C.

J. Cao, Z. Hao, H. Park, C. Tao, D. Kau, and L. Blaszczyk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1044 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tkachenko, B.

A. Egbert, B. Mader, B. Tkachenko, C. Fallnich, B. N. Chichkov, H. Stiel, and P. V. Nickles, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tomassini, R.

E. Fill, J. Bayerl, and R. Tomassini, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tomov, I. V.

P. Chen, I. V. Tomov, and P. Rentzepis, J. Chem. Phys. 104, 10001 (1996).

Uschmann, I.

F. Pisani, U. Andiel, K. Eidmann, K. Witte, I. Uschmann, A. Morak, E. Förster, and R. Sauerbrey, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2772 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Witte, K.

F. Pisani, U. Andiel, K. Eidmann, K. Witte, I. Uschmann, A. Morak, E. Förster, and R. Sauerbrey, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2772 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zewail, A. H.

H. Ihee, V. A. Lobashov, U. M. Gomez, B. M. Goodson, R. Srinivasan, C. Y. Ruan, and A. H. Zewail, Science 291, 458 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

J. Cao, Z. Hao, H. Park, C. Tao, D. Kau, and L. Blaszczyk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1044 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Egbert, B. Mader, B. Tkachenko, C. Fallnich, B. N. Chichkov, H. Stiel, and P. V. Nickles, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Pisani, U. Andiel, K. Eidmann, K. Witte, I. Uschmann, A. Morak, E. Förster, and R. Sauerbrey, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2772 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

B.-L. Quian and H. E. Elsayed-Ali, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 462 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

M. Aeschlimann, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, H. E. Elsayed-Ali, R. J. D. Miller, C. Cao, Y. Gao, and D. A. Mantell, J. Chem. Phys. 102, 8606 (1995).

P. Chen, I. V. Tomov, and P. Rentzepis, J. Chem. Phys. 104, 10001 (1996).

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

J. P. Girardeau-Montaut, B. Kiraly, C. Girardeau-Montaut, and H. Leboutet, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 452, 361 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Egbert and B. N. Chichkov, Proc. SPIE 4978, 92 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

C. Belzile, J. C. Kieffer, C. Y. Cote, T. Oksenhaendler, and D. Kaplan, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1617 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Fill, J. Bayerl, and R. Tomassini, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

H. Ihee, V. A. Lobashov, U. M. Gomez, B. M. Goodson, R. Srinivasan, C. Y. Ruan, and A. H. Zewail, Science 291, 458 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup consisting of a femtosecond laser system, x-ray diode, and streak camera. BS, beam splitter; L, lens; HV, high voltage.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical streak camera images. The traces in the right half of these images are produced by ultrashort copper Kα x-ray pulses recorded at (a) 30 µJ, 40 kV and (b) 3 µJ, 90 kV. Insets, intensity distributions and hard-x-ray pulse durations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of the measured x-ray pulse durations on the acceleration voltage and laser pulse energy. Solid and dashed curves provide calculated values. The inset shows the corresponding number of electrons per pulse.

Equations (1)

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Δtsp=e1/2m1/2d2N2πU3/20r2,  Δte=Δv0mdeU,

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