Abstract

Conventional polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) can provide depth-resolved Stokes parameter measurements of light reflected from turbid media. A new algorithm that takes into account changes in the optical axis is introduced to provide depth-resolved birefringence and differential optical axis orientation images by use of fiber-based PS-OCT. Quaternion, a convenient mathematical tool, is used to represent an optical element and simplify the algorithm. Experimental results with beef tendon and rabbit tendon and muscle show that this technique has promising potential for imaging the birefringent structure of multiple-layer samples with varying optical axes.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Jiao and L. V. Wang, OE Mag. 3(7), 20 (2003).
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2003 (1)

S. Jiao and L. V. Wang, OE Mag. 3(7), 20 (2003).

2002 (4)

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

1997 (1)

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1949 (1)

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

de Boer, J. F.

Ding, Z.

Fercher, A. F.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Götzinger, E.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hsu, H.

Huang, D.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiao, S.

S. Jiao and L. V. Wang, OE Mag. 3(7), 20 (2003).

S. Jiao and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 350 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jiao and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 27, 101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miao, J.

Milner, T. E.

Nelson, J. S.

Park, B. H.

Pircher, M.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, H.

Richartz, M.

Saxer, C. E.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sticher, M.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

Wang, L. V.

S. Jiao and L. V. Wang, OE Mag. 3(7), 20 (2003).

S. Jiao and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 350 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jiao and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 27, 101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fiber-based PS-OCT system. DOP, degree of polarization; Pol. Mod., polarization modulator; Pol. Control, polarization controller; Phase Mod., phase modulator; PBS, polarization beam splitter; RSOD, rapid scanning optical delay line; D1, D2, detectors.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram for shifting the Stokes vectors. 1 and 2 are two initial Stokes vectors. 1 and 2 are two final Stokes vectors. The vectors without subscript “new” represent Stokes vectors before shifting; those with subscript “new” represent Stokes vectors after shifting.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

PS-OCT images of a–d, beef tendon and a–d, rabbit tendon and muscle. a, a, OCT structural images; b, b, round-trip phase retardation images; c, c, birefringence images; d, d, differential optical axis orientation images; e, histology image of beef tendon.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

qn=cos Δn2+sin Δn2iˆ cos 2θn+jˆ sin 2θn,
qnq2q1=an+iˆbn+jˆcn+kˆdn.
Qn,b=q1q2qn=an+iˆbn+jˆcn-kˆdn.
QT,n=Qfiber,DQfiber,S,bQn,bQMQn,fQfiber,S,f=An+iˆBn+jˆCn+kˆDn,
QT,n+1=Qfiber,DQfiber,S,bQn+1,bQMQn+1,fQfiber,S,f=An+1+iˆBn+1+jˆCn+1+kˆDn+1.
cos Δn+1=AnAn+1+BnBn+1+CnCn+1+DnDn+1.
Reqnqn+12qn=cosΔn+Δn+1+1-cos 2βnsin Δn sin Δn+1,
cos Δn,n+1=An-1An+1+Bn-1Bn+1+Cn-1Cn+1+Dn-1Dn+1.
cos 2βn=1-cos Δn,n+1-cosΔn+Δn+1sin Δn sin Δn+1.
1new=sinφ-δ/4sin φ1+sinδ/4sin φ2,  2new=sinδ/4sin φ1+sinφ-δ/4sin φ2,  1new=sinφ+δ/4sin φ1-sinδ/4sin φ2,  2new=sinδ/4sin φ1+sinφ+δ/4sin φ2.

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