Abstract

We report a new molecular contrast optical coherence tomography (MCOCT) implementation that profiles the contrast agent distribution in a sample by measuring the agent’s spectral differential absorption. The method, spectra triangulation MCOCT, can effectively suppress contributions from spectrally dependent scatterings from the sample without a priori knowledge of the scattering properties. We demonstrate molecular imaging with this new MCOCT modality by mapping the distribution of indocyanine green, a FDA-approved infrared red dye, within a stage 54 Xenopus laevis.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed.Opt. 1, 157 (1996).
  3. J. M. Schmitt, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 1205 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. D. Rao, M. A. Choma, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 28, 340 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. M. Lee, A. L. Oldenburg, S. Sitafalwalla, D. L. Marks, W. Luo, F. J. J. Toublan, K. S. Suslick, and S. A. Boppart, Opt. Lett. 28, 1546 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. E. Stanga, J. I. Lim, and P. Hamilton, Ophthalmology 110, 15 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. U. Morgner, W. Drexler, F. X. Kartner, X. D. Li, C. Pitris, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 25, 111 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. J. Faber, E. G. Mik, M. C. G. Aalders, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Opt. Lett. 28, 1436 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Zipprich, N. Steudel, C. Behrmann, F. Meiss, U. Sziegoleit, W. E. Fleig, and G. Kleber, Hepatology 37, 385 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. American National Standards Institute, (Laser Institute of America, Orlando, Fla., 2000).
  11. A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. A. Choma, M. Sarunic, C. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Express 11, 2183 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (6)

2002 (1)

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

J. M. Schmitt, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 1205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed.Opt. 1, 157 (1996).

1995 (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aalders, M. C. G.

Bajraszewski, T.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Behrmann, C.

A. Zipprich, N. Steudel, C. Behrmann, F. Meiss, U. Sziegoleit, W. E. Fleig, and G. Kleber, Hepatology 37, 385 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

Choma, M. A.

Denk, W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

Elzaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Faber, D. J.

Fercher, A. F.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed.Opt. 1, 157 (1996).

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fleig, W. E.

A. Zipprich, N. Steudel, C. Behrmann, F. Meiss, U. Sziegoleit, W. E. Fleig, and G. Kleber, Hepatology 37, 385 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Hamilton, P.

P. E. Stanga, J. I. Lim, and P. Hamilton, Ophthalmology 110, 15 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

Izatt, J. A.

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kartner, F. X.

Kleber, G.

A. Zipprich, N. Steudel, C. Behrmann, F. Meiss, U. Sziegoleit, W. E. Fleig, and G. Kleber, Hepatology 37, 385 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalczyk, A.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, T. M.

Leitgeb, R.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X. D.

Lim, J. I.

P. E. Stanga, J. I. Lim, and P. Hamilton, Ophthalmology 110, 15 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Luo, W.

Marks, D. L.

Meiss, F.

A. Zipprich, N. Steudel, C. Behrmann, F. Meiss, U. Sziegoleit, W. E. Fleig, and G. Kleber, Hepatology 37, 385 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mik, E. G.

Morgner, U.

Oldenburg, A. L.

Pitris, C.

Rao, K. D.

Rollins, A. M.

Sarunic, M.

Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Schmitt, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 1205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sitafalwalla, S.

Stanga, P. E.

P. E. Stanga, J. I. Lim, and P. Hamilton, Ophthalmology 110, 15 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Steudel, N.

A. Zipprich, N. Steudel, C. Behrmann, F. Meiss, U. Sziegoleit, W. E. Fleig, and G. Kleber, Hepatology 37, 385 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strickler, J. H.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suslick, K. S.

Sziegoleit, U.

A. Zipprich, N. Steudel, C. Behrmann, F. Meiss, U. Sziegoleit, W. E. Fleig, and G. Kleber, Hepatology 37, 385 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toublan, F. J. J.

van Leeuwen, T. G.

Webb, W. W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

Yazdanfar, S.

Zipprich, A.

A. Zipprich, N. Steudel, C. Behrmann, F. Meiss, U. Sziegoleit, W. E. Fleig, and G. Kleber, Hepatology 37, 385 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hepatology (1)

A. Zipprich, N. Steudel, C. Behrmann, F. Meiss, U. Sziegoleit, W. E. Fleig, and G. Kleber, Hepatology 37, 385 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

J. M. Schmitt, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 1205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed.Opt. (1)

A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed.Opt. 1, 157 (1996).

Ophthalmology (1)

P. E. Stanga, J. I. Lim, and P. Hamilton, Ophthalmology 110, 15 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Science (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

American National Standards Institute, (Laser Institute of America, Orlando, Fla., 2000).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectrum of ICG. The arrows indicate the center wavelengths at which we acquired our MCOCT images.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a, Cross section of the target sample; the arrows indicate probe light direction, green represents the location of the ICF and the scattering medium, and the surrounding gray region represents the scattering medium. b, OCT image at 795 nm (average of 300 scans); the arrows locate line traces for Figs. 1(e)1(h). The imaging focal plane is near the bottom of the capillary tube. c, Contrast image created by using the image processing method described in Eq. (2). d, Unwrapped contrast image based on processing described in Eq. (3). e and g, OCT A-scans at different wavelengths (green, 760 nm; red, 795 nm; blue, 830 nm). f and g, Processed scans corresponding to the numerator (blue) and the denominator (red) of Eq. (2). The vertical scales for e–h are normalized to unity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a, Ventral view of a stage 54 Xenopus laevis tadpole; the red line indicates the location where images are acquired. b, OCT image of the illuminated regions: (i) parabranchial cavity, (ii) gill arches, (iii) opercular field. (c) Spectral triangulation MCOCT contrast image of the same region.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Pdetectorλ,z=2PRoPSo exp-0zμaλ,z+μsλ,zdzRλ,zexp-2 ln22z2lc22PRoPSo exp-0zμaλ,z+μsλ,zdzRλ,z,
Sz=Pλ1,zPλ3,z1/2/Pλ2,zexp-0zΔμazdz+OΔλ2,
lnSz+ΔzSz=zz+ΔzΔμaz,λ2dzΔμaz,λ2Δz.

Metrics