Abstract

We have demonstrated that both multiphoton polarization and generalized polarization (GP) microscopy may be combined to characterize the structural changes of intercellular lipids in skin. Both polarization and GP (at 440- and 490-nm emission) images obtained by analysis of Laurdan fluorescence suggest that the treatment of oleic acid results in a skin surface with a more random packing of lipid molecules, which allows easier water penetration. Our results show that combined polarization and GP microscopy can be used to characterize the physical and chemical changes in biological structures.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. P. T. C. So, C. Y. Dong, B. R. Masters, and K. M. Berland, Ann. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 2, 399 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  3. B. Yu, C. Y. Dong, P. T. C. So, D. Blankschtein, and R. Langer, J. Invest. Dermatol. 117, 16 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. B. Yu, K. H. Kim, P. T. C. So, D. Blankschtein, and R. Langer, J. Invest. Dermatol. 118, 1085 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. R. O. Potts and M. L. Francoeur, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87, 3871 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  6. L. A. Bagatolli and E. Gratton, Biophys. J. 78, 290 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Sun, J. W. Su, W. Lo, S. J. Lin, S. H. Jee, and C. Y. Dong, Opt. Express 11, 3377 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. J. A. Boustra, F. E. R. Dubbelaar, G. S. Gooris, and M. Ponec, Acta Derm. Venereol. Suppl. 208, 23 (2000).
  9. K. C. Madison, J. Invest. Dermatol. 121, 231 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Plenum, New York, 1999).
    [Crossref]

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

B. Yu, K. H. Kim, P. T. C. So, D. Blankschtein, and R. Langer, J. Invest. Dermatol. 118, 1085 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

B. Yu, C. Y. Dong, P. T. C. So, D. Blankschtein, and R. Langer, J. Invest. Dermatol. 117, 16 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

L. A. Bagatolli and E. Gratton, Biophys. J. 78, 290 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Boustra, F. E. R. Dubbelaar, G. S. Gooris, and M. Ponec, Acta Derm. Venereol. Suppl. 208, 23 (2000).

P. T. C. So, C. Y. Dong, B. R. Masters, and K. M. Berland, Ann. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 2, 399 (2000).
[Crossref]

1990 (2)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. O. Potts and M. L. Francoeur, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87, 3871 (1990).
[Crossref]

Bagatolli, L. A.

L. A. Bagatolli and E. Gratton, Biophys. J. 78, 290 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berland, K. M.

P. T. C. So, C. Y. Dong, B. R. Masters, and K. M. Berland, Ann. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 2, 399 (2000).
[Crossref]

Blankschtein, D.

B. Yu, K. H. Kim, P. T. C. So, D. Blankschtein, and R. Langer, J. Invest. Dermatol. 118, 1085 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Yu, C. Y. Dong, P. T. C. So, D. Blankschtein, and R. Langer, J. Invest. Dermatol. 117, 16 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boustra, J. A.

J. A. Boustra, F. E. R. Dubbelaar, G. S. Gooris, and M. Ponec, Acta Derm. Venereol. Suppl. 208, 23 (2000).

Denk, W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, C. Y.

Y. Sun, J. W. Su, W. Lo, S. J. Lin, S. H. Jee, and C. Y. Dong, Opt. Express 11, 3377 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Yu, C. Y. Dong, P. T. C. So, D. Blankschtein, and R. Langer, J. Invest. Dermatol. 117, 16 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. T. C. So, C. Y. Dong, B. R. Masters, and K. M. Berland, Ann. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 2, 399 (2000).
[Crossref]

Dubbelaar, F. E. R.

J. A. Boustra, F. E. R. Dubbelaar, G. S. Gooris, and M. Ponec, Acta Derm. Venereol. Suppl. 208, 23 (2000).

Francoeur, M. L.

R. O. Potts and M. L. Francoeur, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87, 3871 (1990).
[Crossref]

Gooris, G. S.

J. A. Boustra, F. E. R. Dubbelaar, G. S. Gooris, and M. Ponec, Acta Derm. Venereol. Suppl. 208, 23 (2000).

Gratton, E.

L. A. Bagatolli and E. Gratton, Biophys. J. 78, 290 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jee, S. H.

Kim, K. H.

B. Yu, K. H. Kim, P. T. C. So, D. Blankschtein, and R. Langer, J. Invest. Dermatol. 118, 1085 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lakowicz, J. R.

J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Plenum, New York, 1999).
[Crossref]

Langer, R.

B. Yu, K. H. Kim, P. T. C. So, D. Blankschtein, and R. Langer, J. Invest. Dermatol. 118, 1085 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Yu, C. Y. Dong, P. T. C. So, D. Blankschtein, and R. Langer, J. Invest. Dermatol. 117, 16 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, S. J.

Lo, W.

Madison, K. C.

K. C. Madison, J. Invest. Dermatol. 121, 231 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Masters, B. R.

P. T. C. So, C. Y. Dong, B. R. Masters, and K. M. Berland, Ann. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 2, 399 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ponec, M.

J. A. Boustra, F. E. R. Dubbelaar, G. S. Gooris, and M. Ponec, Acta Derm. Venereol. Suppl. 208, 23 (2000).

Potts, R. O.

R. O. Potts and M. L. Francoeur, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87, 3871 (1990).
[Crossref]

So, P. T. C.

B. Yu, K. H. Kim, P. T. C. So, D. Blankschtein, and R. Langer, J. Invest. Dermatol. 118, 1085 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Yu, C. Y. Dong, P. T. C. So, D. Blankschtein, and R. Langer, J. Invest. Dermatol. 117, 16 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. T. C. So, C. Y. Dong, B. R. Masters, and K. M. Berland, Ann. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 2, 399 (2000).
[Crossref]

Strickler, J. H.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, J. W.

Sun, Y.

Webb, W. W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, B.

B. Yu, K. H. Kim, P. T. C. So, D. Blankschtein, and R. Langer, J. Invest. Dermatol. 118, 1085 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Yu, C. Y. Dong, P. T. C. So, D. Blankschtein, and R. Langer, J. Invest. Dermatol. 117, 16 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Acta Derm. Venereol. Suppl. (1)

J. A. Boustra, F. E. R. Dubbelaar, G. S. Gooris, and M. Ponec, Acta Derm. Venereol. Suppl. 208, 23 (2000).

Ann. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (1)

P. T. C. So, C. Y. Dong, B. R. Masters, and K. M. Berland, Ann. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 2, 399 (2000).
[Crossref]

Biophys. J. (1)

L. A. Bagatolli and E. Gratton, Biophys. J. 78, 290 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (3)

K. C. Madison, J. Invest. Dermatol. 121, 231 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Yu, C. Y. Dong, P. T. C. So, D. Blankschtein, and R. Langer, J. Invest. Dermatol. 117, 16 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Yu, K. H. Kim, P. T. C. So, D. Blankschtein, and R. Langer, J. Invest. Dermatol. 118, 1085 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

R. O. Potts and M. L. Francoeur, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87, 3871 (1990).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Plenum, New York, 1999).
[Crossref]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Laurdan skin polarization images in the (a) absence and (c) presence of OA. Laurdan GP images (b) without and (d) with OA (Imax=1, Imin=-1). In (b) and (d), two areas are chosen for GP analysis. In (b), the GPs for areas b1 and b2 are 0.37±0.15, 0.27±0.14, respectively. In (d) the GPs for d1 and d2 are, respectively, -0.08±0.13 and -0.11±0.11.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Laurdan polarization histograms in the (a) absence and (c) presence of OA. (b) and (d) Laurdan GP histograms without and with OA, respectively. (e) and (f) Results of polarization and GP analysis without and with OA, respectively, at selected regions.

Equations (2)

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P=Ipar-IperIpar+Iper,  r=Ipar-IperIpar+2Iper.
GP=I440nm-I490nmI440nm+I490nm.

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