Abstract

We propose a novel fabrication method, which is referred to as the sample-inverted reflow technique, to fabricate a refractive microlens array (MLA) with a revolved-hyperboloid profile in a solgel material. The fabricated solgel MLA demonstrates an excellent smooth profile with a fabrication error much less than the difference between the revolved hyperboloid and the spherical surface. In an application of coupling a laser diode (LD) to a single-mode fiber (SMF), we propose a two-MLA coupling scheme in which two revolved-hyperboloid MLAs are used between the LD and the SMF. In this configuration the coupling efficiency achieves 81.7% -0.88 dB.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  14. V. S. Shah, L. Curtis, R. S. Vodhabel, D. P. Bour, and W. C. Young, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1313 (1990).
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2003

2002

H. Eugene, Optics (Addison-Wesley, San Francisco, 2002), pp. 149–155.

F. A. Rahman, K. Takahashi, and C. H. Teik, Opt. Commun. 208, 103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

P. Chanclou, M. Thual, J. Lostec, D. Pavy, and M. Gadonna, Opt. Eng. 39, 387 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, and N. Tohge, Appl. Opt. 39, 489 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

D. Blac, S. Pelissier, K. Saravanamuttu, S. I. Najafi, and M. P. Andrews, Adv. Mater. 11, 1508 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vahakangas, S. Honkannen, and N. Peyghambarian, Electron. Lett. 34, 455 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

1994

M. E. Motamedi, A. P. Andrews, and W. J. Gunning, Opt. Eng. 33, 3616 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991

W. B. Veldkamp, Proc. SPIE 1544, 287 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

V. S. Shah, L. Curtis, R. S. Vodhabel, D. P. Bour, and W. C. Young, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1313 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

H. Karstensen, J. Opt. Commun. 9, 42 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, A. P.

M. E. Motamedi, A. P. Andrews, and W. J. Gunning, Opt. Eng. 33, 3616 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, M. P.

D. Blac, S. Pelissier, K. Saravanamuttu, S. I. Najafi, and M. P. Andrews, Adv. Mater. 11, 1508 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Blac, D.

D. Blac, S. Pelissier, K. Saravanamuttu, S. I. Najafi, and M. P. Andrews, Adv. Mater. 11, 1508 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bour, D. P.

V. S. Shah, L. Curtis, R. S. Vodhabel, D. P. Bour, and W. C. Young, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1313 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bu, J.

Chanclou, P.

P. Chanclou, M. Thual, J. Lostec, D. Pavy, and M. Gadonna, Opt. Eng. 39, 387 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, W. C.

Curtis, L.

V. S. Shah, L. Curtis, R. S. Vodhabel, D. P. Bour, and W. C. Young, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1313 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Eugene, H.

H. Eugene, Optics (Addison-Wesley, San Francisco, 2002), pp. 149–155.

Gadonna, M.

P. Chanclou, M. Thual, J. Lostec, D. Pavy, and M. Gadonna, Opt. Eng. 39, 387 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gunning, W. J.

M. E. Motamedi, A. P. Andrews, and W. J. Gunning, Opt. Eng. 33, 3616 (1994).
[CrossRef]

He, M.

Honkannen, S.

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vahakangas, S. Honkannen, and N. Peyghambarian, Electron. Lett. 34, 455 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Karstensen, H.

H. Karstensen, J. Opt. Commun. 9, 42 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kintaka, K.

Kudryashov, V.

Lostec, J.

P. Chanclou, M. Thual, J. Lostec, D. Pavy, and M. Gadonna, Opt. Eng. 39, 387 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Motamedi, M. E.

M. E. Motamedi, A. P. Andrews, and W. J. Gunning, Opt. Eng. 33, 3616 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Najafi, S. I.

D. Blac, S. Pelissier, K. Saravanamuttu, S. I. Najafi, and M. P. Andrews, Adv. Mater. 11, 1508 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ngo, N. Q.

Nishii, J.

Nordman, N.

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vahakangas, S. Honkannen, and N. Peyghambarian, Electron. Lett. 34, 455 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nordman, O.

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vahakangas, S. Honkannen, and N. Peyghambarian, Electron. Lett. 34, 455 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O'Shea, D.

Pavy, D.

P. Chanclou, M. Thual, J. Lostec, D. Pavy, and M. Gadonna, Opt. Eng. 39, 387 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pelissier, S.

D. Blac, S. Pelissier, K. Saravanamuttu, S. I. Najafi, and M. P. Andrews, Adv. Mater. 11, 1508 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vahakangas, S. Honkannen, and N. Peyghambarian, Electron. Lett. 34, 455 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rahman, F. A.

F. A. Rahman, K. Takahashi, and C. H. Teik, Opt. Commun. 208, 103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rantala, J. T.

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vahakangas, S. Honkannen, and N. Peyghambarian, Electron. Lett. 34, 455 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Saravanamuttu, K.

D. Blac, S. Pelissier, K. Saravanamuttu, S. I. Najafi, and M. P. Andrews, Adv. Mater. 11, 1508 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shah, V. S.

V. S. Shah, L. Curtis, R. S. Vodhabel, D. P. Bour, and W. C. Young, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1313 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Suleski, T.

Takahashi, K.

F. A. Rahman, K. Takahashi, and C. H. Teik, Opt. Commun. 208, 103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tao, S. H.

Teik, C. H.

F. A. Rahman, K. Takahashi, and C. H. Teik, Opt. Commun. 208, 103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thual, M.

P. Chanclou, M. Thual, J. Lostec, D. Pavy, and M. Gadonna, Opt. Eng. 39, 387 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tohge, N.

Vahakangas, J.

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vahakangas, S. Honkannen, and N. Peyghambarian, Electron. Lett. 34, 455 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Veldkamp, W. B.

W. B. Veldkamp, Proc. SPIE 1544, 287 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Vodhabel, R. S.

V. S. Shah, L. Curtis, R. S. Vodhabel, D. P. Bour, and W. C. Young, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1313 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Young, W. C.

V. S. Shah, L. Curtis, R. S. Vodhabel, D. P. Bour, and W. C. Young, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1313 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, X.-C.

Adv. Mater.

D. Blac, S. Pelissier, K. Saravanamuttu, S. I. Najafi, and M. P. Andrews, Adv. Mater. 11, 1508 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Electron. Lett.

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vahakangas, S. Honkannen, and N. Peyghambarian, Electron. Lett. 34, 455 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol.

V. S. Shah, L. Curtis, R. S. Vodhabel, D. P. Bour, and W. C. Young, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1313 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Commun.

H. Karstensen, J. Opt. Commun. 9, 42 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

F. A. Rahman, K. Takahashi, and C. H. Teik, Opt. Commun. 208, 103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

M. E. Motamedi, A. P. Andrews, and W. J. Gunning, Opt. Eng. 33, 3616 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Chanclou, M. Thual, J. Lostec, D. Pavy, and M. Gadonna, Opt. Eng. 39, 387 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

W. B. Veldkamp, Proc. SPIE 1544, 287 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. Eugene, Optics (Addison-Wesley, San Francisco, 2002), pp. 149–155.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Two-MLA coupling scheme for improving coupling efficiency between a LD and a SMF by the introduction of two revolved-hyperboloid MLAs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Key fabrication step of a revolved-hyperboloid MLA by the sample-inverted reflow technique. (b) Measured SEM image of solgel revolved-hyperboloid MLA 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measured surface profile of solgel MLA 1 along the x direction. (b) Surface profile discrepancy between actual fabricated MLA 1 and the ideal revolved hyperboloid (solid curve) and the difference between the revolved hyperboloid and a spherical profile (dotted curve).

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

e=n/n0,
y2a2-x2+z2a2e2-1=1,
a=f1+e,
h=a1+D24a2e2-11/2-a.
V=14πD2t,
V=aa+hπa2e2-1y2a2-1dy=πh23e2-13a+h.
t=4h23ηD2e2-13a+h.

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