Abstract

A warm-white light-emitting diode (LED) without blending of different kinds of phosphors is demonstrated. An approach that consists of a blue LED chip and a wavelength-conversion phosphor is carried out. The phosphor is a newly developed yellowish orange CaEuSiAlON ceramic phosphor with high efficiency. The CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates x,y are (0.458, 0.414), the color temperature is 2750 K, and the luminous efficacy of this LED is 25.9 lm/W at room temperature and with a forward-bias current of 20 mA. The chromaticity of the assembled LED is more thermally stable than that of a LED with a conventional oxide phosphor (YAG:Ce) because of the better thermal stability of the oxynitride phosphor.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. “National project on light for the 21st century: year 2000 report of results,” (Japan Research and Development Center of Metals, Tokyo, 2000).
  2. D. Malakoff, Science 296, 1782 (2002).
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  5. P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, Appl. Phys. A 64, 417 (1997).
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    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Yamada, T. Naitou, K. Izuno, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, M. Kameshima, and T. Mukai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L20 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Z. Cao and R. Metselaar, Chem. Mater. 1991, 242 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. J. Xie, M. Mitomo, K. Uheda, F. F. Xu, and Y. Akimune, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1229 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. W. H. van Krevel, J. W. T. van Rutten, H. Mandal, H. T. Hintzen, and R. Metselaar, J. Solid State Chem. 165, 19 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Z. J. Shen, M. Nygren, and U. Halenius, J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 16, 263 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Mandal and M. J. Hoffmann, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 82, 229 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, K. Sakuma, Y. Yamamoto, and M. Mitomo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5404 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. “Classification of Fluorescent Lamps by Chromaticity and Colour Rendering Property,” (Japanese Standards Association, Tokyo, 1990).
  16. “Specifications for the Chromaticity of Fluorescent Lamps,” (American National Standards Lighting Group—National Electrical Manufacturers Association, Rosslyn, Va., 2001).
  17. A. Ellens, G. Huber, and F. Kummer, “Illumination unit having at least one LED as light source,” U.S. patent6,657,379 (December2, 2003).

2004

R. J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, K. Sakuma, Y. Yamamoto, and M. Mitomo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Yamada, T. Naitou, K. Izuno, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, M. Kameshima, and T. Mukai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, and T. Trottier, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 339 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Malakoff, Science 296, 1782 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Xie, M. Mitomo, K. Uheda, F. F. Xu, and Y. Akimune, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1229 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. W. H. van Krevel, J. W. T. van Rutten, H. Mandal, H. T. Hintzen, and R. Metselaar, J. Solid State Chem. 165, 19 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

H. Mandal and M. J. Hoffmann, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 82, 229 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Schlotter, J. Baur, Ch. Hielscher, M. Kunzer, H. Obloh, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59, 390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

K. Bando, K. Sakano, Y. Noguchi, and Y. Shimizu, J. Light Visual Environ. 22, 2 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, Appl. Phys. A 64, 417 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, Proc. SPIE 3002, 26 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. J. Shen, M. Nygren, and U. Halenius, J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 16, 263 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991

G. Z. Cao and R. Metselaar, Chem. Mater. 1991, 242 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Akimune, Y.

R. J. Xie, M. Mitomo, K. Uheda, F. F. Xu, and Y. Akimune, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1229 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bando, K.

K. Bando, K. Sakano, Y. Noguchi, and Y. Shimizu, J. Light Visual Environ. 22, 2 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baur, J.

P. Schlotter, J. Baur, Ch. Hielscher, M. Kunzer, H. Obloh, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59, 390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cao, G. Z.

G. Z. Cao and R. Metselaar, Chem. Mater. 1991, 242 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ellens, A.

A. Ellens, G. Huber, and F. Kummer, “Illumination unit having at least one LED as light source,” U.S. patent6,657,379 (December2, 2003).

Halenius, U.

Z. J. Shen, M. Nygren, and U. Halenius, J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 16, 263 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hielscher, Ch.

P. Schlotter, J. Baur, Ch. Hielscher, M. Kunzer, H. Obloh, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59, 390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hintzen, H. T.

J. W. H. van Krevel, J. W. T. van Rutten, H. Mandal, H. T. Hintzen, and R. Metselaar, J. Solid State Chem. 165, 19 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hirosaki, N.

R. J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, K. Sakuma, Y. Yamamoto, and M. Mitomo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, M. J.

H. Mandal and M. J. Hoffmann, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 82, 229 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

A. Ellens, G. Huber, and F. Kummer, “Illumination unit having at least one LED as light source,” U.S. patent6,657,379 (December2, 2003).

Izuno, K.

M. Yamada, T. Naitou, K. Izuno, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, M. Kameshima, and T. Mukai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kameshima, M.

M. Yamada, T. Naitou, K. Izuno, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, M. Kameshima, and T. Mukai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, and T. Trottier, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 339 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kummer, F.

A. Ellens, G. Huber, and F. Kummer, “Illumination unit having at least one LED as light source,” U.S. patent6,657,379 (December2, 2003).

Kunzer, M.

P. Schlotter, J. Baur, Ch. Hielscher, M. Kunzer, H. Obloh, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59, 390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Malakoff, D.

D. Malakoff, Science 296, 1782 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mandal, H.

J. W. H. van Krevel, J. W. T. van Rutten, H. Mandal, H. T. Hintzen, and R. Metselaar, J. Solid State Chem. 165, 19 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Mandal and M. J. Hoffmann, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 82, 229 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Metselaar, R.

J. W. H. van Krevel, J. W. T. van Rutten, H. Mandal, H. T. Hintzen, and R. Metselaar, J. Solid State Chem. 165, 19 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Z. Cao and R. Metselaar, Chem. Mater. 1991, 242 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mitomo, M.

R. J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, K. Sakuma, Y. Yamamoto, and M. Mitomo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Xie, M. Mitomo, K. Uheda, F. F. Xu, and Y. Akimune, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1229 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, G. O.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, and T. Trottier, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 339 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mueller-Mach, R.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, and T. Trottier, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 339 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

M. Yamada, T. Naitou, K. Izuno, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, M. Kameshima, and T. Mukai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Murazaki, Y.

M. Yamada, T. Naitou, K. Izuno, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, M. Kameshima, and T. Mukai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Naitou, T.

M. Yamada, T. Naitou, K. Izuno, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, M. Kameshima, and T. Mukai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, Proc. SPIE 3002, 26 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Noguchi, Y.

K. Bando, K. Sakano, Y. Noguchi, and Y. Shimizu, J. Light Visual Environ. 22, 2 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nygren, M.

Z. J. Shen, M. Nygren, and U. Halenius, J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 16, 263 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Obloh, H.

P. Schlotter, J. Baur, Ch. Hielscher, M. Kunzer, H. Obloh, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59, 390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sakano, K.

K. Bando, K. Sakano, Y. Noguchi, and Y. Shimizu, J. Light Visual Environ. 22, 2 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sakuma, K.

R. J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, K. Sakuma, Y. Yamamoto, and M. Mitomo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schlotter, P.

P. Schlotter, J. Baur, Ch. Hielscher, M. Kunzer, H. Obloh, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59, 390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, Appl. Phys. A 64, 417 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, R.

P. Schlotter, J. Baur, Ch. Hielscher, M. Kunzer, H. Obloh, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59, 390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, Appl. Phys. A 64, 417 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, J.

P. Schlotter, J. Baur, Ch. Hielscher, M. Kunzer, H. Obloh, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59, 390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, Appl. Phys. A 64, 417 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Z. J.

Z. J. Shen, M. Nygren, and U. Halenius, J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 16, 263 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, Y.

K. Bando, K. Sakano, Y. Noguchi, and Y. Shimizu, J. Light Visual Environ. 22, 2 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tamaki, H.

M. Yamada, T. Naitou, K. Izuno, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, M. Kameshima, and T. Mukai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Trottier, T.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, and T. Trottier, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 339 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Uheda, K.

R. J. Xie, M. Mitomo, K. Uheda, F. F. Xu, and Y. Akimune, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1229 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van Krevel, J. W. H.

J. W. H. van Krevel, J. W. T. van Rutten, H. Mandal, H. T. Hintzen, and R. Metselaar, J. Solid State Chem. 165, 19 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van Rutten, J. W. T.

J. W. H. van Krevel, J. W. T. van Rutten, H. Mandal, H. T. Hintzen, and R. Metselaar, J. Solid State Chem. 165, 19 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xie, R. J.

R. J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, K. Sakuma, Y. Yamamoto, and M. Mitomo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Xie, M. Mitomo, K. Uheda, F. F. Xu, and Y. Akimune, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1229 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xu, F. F.

R. J. Xie, M. Mitomo, K. Uheda, F. F. Xu, and Y. Akimune, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1229 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, M.

M. Yamada, T. Naitou, K. Izuno, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, M. Kameshima, and T. Mukai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

R. J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, K. Sakuma, Y. Yamamoto, and M. Mitomo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, Appl. Phys. A 64, 417 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, K. Sakuma, Y. Yamamoto, and M. Mitomo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater.

G. Z. Cao and R. Metselaar, Chem. Mater. 1991, 242 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, and T. Trottier, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 339 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc.

R. J. Xie, M. Mitomo, K. Uheda, F. F. Xu, and Y. Akimune, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1229 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Mandal and M. J. Hoffmann, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 82, 229 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Light Visual Environ.

K. Bando, K. Sakano, Y. Noguchi, and Y. Shimizu, J. Light Visual Environ. 22, 2 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. Lett.

Z. J. Shen, M. Nygren, and U. Halenius, J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 16, 263 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Solid State Chem.

J. W. H. van Krevel, J. W. T. van Rutten, H. Mandal, H. T. Hintzen, and R. Metselaar, J. Solid State Chem. 165, 19 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

M. Yamada, T. Naitou, K. Izuno, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, M. Kameshima, and T. Mukai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B

P. Schlotter, J. Baur, Ch. Hielscher, M. Kunzer, H. Obloh, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59, 390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

S. Nakamura, Proc. SPIE 3002, 26 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science

D. Malakoff, Science 296, 1782 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other

“National project on light for the 21st century: year 2000 report of results,” (Japan Research and Development Center of Metals, Tokyo, 2000).

“Classification of Fluorescent Lamps by Chromaticity and Colour Rendering Property,” (Japanese Standards Association, Tokyo, 1990).

“Specifications for the Chromaticity of Fluorescent Lamps,” (American National Standards Lighting Group—National Electrical Manufacturers Association, Rosslyn, Va., 2001).

A. Ellens, G. Huber, and F. Kummer, “Illumination unit having at least one LED as light source,” U.S. patent6,657,379 (December2, 2003).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the warm-white LED.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Excitation and emission spectra of the yellowish orange Ca-Eu-SiAlON phosphor. The excitation wavelength is 450 nm for the emission spectrum, and the emission monitoring wavelength is 585 nm for the excitation spectrum.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates of the fabricated LEDs, the blue LED, and the yellowish orange Ca-Eu-SiAlON phosphor.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates of the warm-white LED of the incandescent lamp color. The quadrilateral represents the chromaticity limits of the incandescent color lamp defined in Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) Z 9112. The oval represents the chromaticity limits of a 2700 K lamp as defined in American National Standard Institute (ANSI) C78.376.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Emission spectrum of the warm-white LED of the incandescent lamp color. Luminous efficacy is 25.9 lm/W.

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