Abstract

The distributed gain of single- and dual-wavelength-pumped thulium-doped fiber amplifiers is modeled. The excellent agreement between the model and coherent optical frequency domain reflectometry measurements enables us to estimate intrinsic loss, branching ratios of fluorescence originating from the H34 level, and cross sections of upconversion pumping at 1050 and 1410 nm for the Tm3+ ions in the fiber. With the branching ratios obtained it is possible to describe induced signal absorption when pumping at 800 nm.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. S. L. Gomes, Proc. SPIE 4990, 1 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Roy, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 568–569.
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and T. Ono, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 31 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Roy, D. Bayart, A. Le Sauze, and P. Baniel, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 788 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and H. Sekita, Opt. Lett. 24, 1684 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and T. Ono, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 433 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and T. Ono, Electron. Lett. 36, 1607 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Roy, A. Le Sauze, P. Baniel, and D. Vallart, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, N. Jolley, J. D. Minelly, and Y. Nakano, eds., Vol. 60 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 24–26.
  9. A. S. L. Gomes, M. T. Carvalho, M. L. Sundheimer, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, J. F. Martins-Filho, M. B. Costa e Silva, J. P. von der Weid, and W. Margulis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 200 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. S. L. Gomes, M. T. Carvalho, M. L. Sundheimer, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, J. F. Martins-Filho, J. P. von der Weid, and W. Margulis, Opt. Lett. 28, 334 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1880 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 173 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. S. L. Gomes, M. T. Carvalho, and M. L. Sundheimer, Electron. Lett. 39, 647 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and T. Ono, J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1826 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Marcuse, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 103 (1978).
  16. F. Brunet, P. Laperle, R. Vallée, S. LaRochele, and L. Pujol, Proc. SPIE 3849, 125 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Sanz, R. Cases, and R. Alcala, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 93, 377 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. Guery, J. L. Adam, and J. Lucas, J. Lumin. 42, 181 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  19. F. Roy, “L’amplificateur á fibre dopée thulium: un dispositif prometteur pour l’amplificatíon d’une nauvelle bande de canaux multiplexés en langueur d’onde dans les systèmes de transmission par fibre optique,” Ph.D. dissertation, (Universitè de Franche-Comté, Besançon, France, 2002).

2003 (4)

A. S. L. Gomes, Proc. SPIE 4990, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. S. L. Gomes, M. T. Carvalho, M. L. Sundheimer, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, J. F. Martins-Filho, M. B. Costa e Silva, J. P. von der Weid, and W. Margulis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 200 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. S. L. Gomes, M. T. Carvalho, and M. L. Sundheimer, Electron. Lett. 39, 647 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. S. L. Gomes, M. T. Carvalho, M. L. Sundheimer, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, J. F. Martins-Filho, J. P. von der Weid, and W. Margulis, Opt. Lett. 28, 334 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2001 (3)

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and T. Ono, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 31 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Roy, D. Bayart, A. Le Sauze, and P. Baniel, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 788 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and T. Ono, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 433 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and T. Ono, Electron. Lett. 36, 1607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

F. Brunet, P. Laperle, R. Vallée, S. LaRochele, and L. Pujol, Proc. SPIE 3849, 125 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and H. Sekita, Opt. Lett. 24, 1684 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1880 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

C. Guery, J. L. Adam, and J. Lucas, J. Lumin. 42, 181 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

J. Sanz, R. Cases, and R. Alcala, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 93, 377 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

Adam, J. L.

C. Guery, J. L. Adam, and J. Lucas, J. Lumin. 42, 181 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Alcala, R.

J. Sanz, R. Cases, and R. Alcala, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 93, 377 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Baniel, P.

F. Roy, D. Bayart, A. Le Sauze, and P. Baniel, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 788 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Roy, A. Le Sauze, P. Baniel, and D. Vallart, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, N. Jolley, J. D. Minelly, and Y. Nakano, eds., Vol. 60 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 24–26.

Bastos-Filho, C. J. A.

A. S. L. Gomes, M. T. Carvalho, M. L. Sundheimer, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, J. F. Martins-Filho, M. B. Costa e Silva, J. P. von der Weid, and W. Margulis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 200 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. S. L. Gomes, M. T. Carvalho, M. L. Sundheimer, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, J. F. Martins-Filho, J. P. von der Weid, and W. Margulis, Opt. Lett. 28, 334 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bayart, D.

F. Roy, D. Bayart, A. Le Sauze, and P. Baniel, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 788 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brunet, F.

F. Brunet, P. Laperle, R. Vallée, S. LaRochele, and L. Pujol, Proc. SPIE 3849, 125 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carvalho, M. T.

A. S. L. Gomes, M. T. Carvalho, M. L. Sundheimer, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, J. F. Martins-Filho, J. P. von der Weid, and W. Margulis, Opt. Lett. 28, 334 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. L. Gomes, M. T. Carvalho, M. L. Sundheimer, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, J. F. Martins-Filho, M. B. Costa e Silva, J. P. von der Weid, and W. Margulis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 200 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. S. L. Gomes, M. T. Carvalho, and M. L. Sundheimer, Electron. Lett. 39, 647 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cases, R.

J. Sanz, R. Cases, and R. Alcala, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 93, 377 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Costa e Silva, M. B.

A. S. L. Gomes, M. T. Carvalho, M. L. Sundheimer, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, J. F. Martins-Filho, M. B. Costa e Silva, J. P. von der Weid, and W. Margulis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 200 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, A. S. L.

A. S. L. Gomes, M. T. Carvalho, M. L. Sundheimer, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, J. F. Martins-Filho, M. B. Costa e Silva, J. P. von der Weid, and W. Margulis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 200 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. S. L. Gomes, M. T. Carvalho, M. L. Sundheimer, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, J. F. Martins-Filho, J. P. von der Weid, and W. Margulis, Opt. Lett. 28, 334 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. L. Gomes, M. T. Carvalho, and M. L. Sundheimer, Electron. Lett. 39, 647 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. S. L. Gomes, Proc. SPIE 4990, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Guery, C.

C. Guery, J. L. Adam, and J. Lucas, J. Lumin. 42, 181 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kasamatsu, T.

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and T. Ono, J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1826 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and T. Ono, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 31 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and T. Ono, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 433 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and T. Ono, Electron. Lett. 36, 1607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and H. Sekita, Opt. Lett. 24, 1684 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Komukai, T.

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1880 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Laperle, P.

F. Brunet, P. Laperle, R. Vallée, S. LaRochele, and L. Pujol, Proc. SPIE 3849, 125 (1999).
[CrossRef]

LaRochele, S.

F. Brunet, P. Laperle, R. Vallée, S. LaRochele, and L. Pujol, Proc. SPIE 3849, 125 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Le Sauze, A.

F. Roy, D. Bayart, A. Le Sauze, and P. Baniel, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 788 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Roy, A. Le Sauze, P. Baniel, and D. Vallart, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, N. Jolley, J. D. Minelly, and Y. Nakano, eds., Vol. 60 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 24–26.

Lucas, J.

C. Guery, J. L. Adam, and J. Lucas, J. Lumin. 42, 181 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Marcuse, D.

Margulis, W.

A. S. L. Gomes, M. T. Carvalho, M. L. Sundheimer, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, J. F. Martins-Filho, J. P. von der Weid, and W. Margulis, Opt. Lett. 28, 334 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. L. Gomes, M. T. Carvalho, M. L. Sundheimer, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, J. F. Martins-Filho, M. B. Costa e Silva, J. P. von der Weid, and W. Margulis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 200 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Martins-Filho, J. F.

A. S. L. Gomes, M. T. Carvalho, M. L. Sundheimer, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, J. F. Martins-Filho, M. B. Costa e Silva, J. P. von der Weid, and W. Margulis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 200 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. S. L. Gomes, M. T. Carvalho, M. L. Sundheimer, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, J. F. Martins-Filho, J. P. von der Weid, and W. Margulis, Opt. Lett. 28, 334 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyajima, Y.

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1880 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ono, T.

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and T. Ono, J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1826 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and T. Ono, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 31 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and T. Ono, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 433 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and T. Ono, Electron. Lett. 36, 1607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pujol, L.

F. Brunet, P. Laperle, R. Vallée, S. LaRochele, and L. Pujol, Proc. SPIE 3849, 125 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Roy, F.

F. Roy, D. Bayart, A. Le Sauze, and P. Baniel, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 788 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Roy, “L’amplificateur á fibre dopée thulium: un dispositif prometteur pour l’amplificatíon d’une nauvelle bande de canaux multiplexés en langueur d’onde dans les systèmes de transmission par fibre optique,” Ph.D. dissertation, (Universitè de Franche-Comté, Besançon, France, 2002).

F. Roy, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 568–569.
[CrossRef]

F. Roy, A. Le Sauze, P. Baniel, and D. Vallart, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, N. Jolley, J. D. Minelly, and Y. Nakano, eds., Vol. 60 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 24–26.

Sanz, J.

J. Sanz, R. Cases, and R. Alcala, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 93, 377 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sekita, H.

Sugawa, T.

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1880 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sundheimer, M. L.

A. S. L. Gomes, M. T. Carvalho, and M. L. Sundheimer, Electron. Lett. 39, 647 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. S. L. Gomes, M. T. Carvalho, M. L. Sundheimer, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, J. F. Martins-Filho, J. P. von der Weid, and W. Margulis, Opt. Lett. 28, 334 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. L. Gomes, M. T. Carvalho, M. L. Sundheimer, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, J. F. Martins-Filho, M. B. Costa e Silva, J. P. von der Weid, and W. Margulis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 200 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vallart, D.

F. Roy, A. Le Sauze, P. Baniel, and D. Vallart, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, N. Jolley, J. D. Minelly, and Y. Nakano, eds., Vol. 60 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 24–26.

Vallée, R.

F. Brunet, P. Laperle, R. Vallée, S. LaRochele, and L. Pujol, Proc. SPIE 3849, 125 (1999).
[CrossRef]

von der Weid, J. P.

A. S. L. Gomes, M. T. Carvalho, M. L. Sundheimer, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, J. F. Martins-Filho, M. B. Costa e Silva, J. P. von der Weid, and W. Margulis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 200 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. S. L. Gomes, M. T. Carvalho, M. L. Sundheimer, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, J. F. Martins-Filho, J. P. von der Weid, and W. Margulis, Opt. Lett. 28, 334 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, T.

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1880 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yano, Y.

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and T. Ono, J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1826 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and T. Ono, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 31 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and T. Ono, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 433 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and T. Ono, Electron. Lett. 36, 1607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and H. Sekita, Opt. Lett. 24, 1684 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and T. Ono, Electron. Lett. 36, 1607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. S. L. Gomes, M. T. Carvalho, and M. L. Sundheimer, Electron. Lett. 39, 647 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1880 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and T. Ono, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 31 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Roy, D. Bayart, A. Le Sauze, and P. Baniel, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 788 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and T. Ono, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 433 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. S. L. Gomes, M. T. Carvalho, M. L. Sundheimer, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, J. F. Martins-Filho, M. B. Costa e Silva, J. P. von der Weid, and W. Margulis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 200 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Lumin. (1)

C. Guery, J. L. Adam, and J. Lucas, J. Lumin. 42, 181 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

J. Sanz, R. Cases, and R. Alcala, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 93, 377 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (2)

F. Brunet, P. Laperle, R. Vallée, S. LaRochele, and L. Pujol, Proc. SPIE 3849, 125 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. S. L. Gomes, Proc. SPIE 4990, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

F. Roy, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 568–569.
[CrossRef]

F. Roy, A. Le Sauze, P. Baniel, and D. Vallart, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, N. Jolley, J. D. Minelly, and Y. Nakano, eds., Vol. 60 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 24–26.

F. Roy, “L’amplificateur á fibre dopée thulium: un dispositif prometteur pour l’amplificatíon d’une nauvelle bande de canaux multiplexés en langueur d’onde dans les systèmes de transmission par fibre optique,” Ph.D. dissertation, (Universitè de Franche-Comté, Besançon, France, 2002).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Relevant energy levels for setting up the rate equations for dual- or single-wavelength-pumped TDFAs. See text for symbol definitions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental (symbols) and theoretical (curves) gain for a TDFA with different pumping schemes. (a) Δ, 45 mW; , 100 mW at 800 nm; , no pump; , 100 mW and , 240 mW at 1050 nm; , 55+140 mW at 800+1050 nm. (b) , 200 mW and , 300 mW at 1410 nm and , 45+25 mW; , 45+175 mW and Δ, 50+310 mW at 800+1410 nm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison between Cross-Section Values from the Literature and Calculated by the Model Developed in This Work with the Experimental Data from Refs. 10 and 13

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dN0dt=-Wp1+Wp800N0+γ10N1+γ30N3+γ50N5,  dN1dt=-γ10+Wp2+WsaN1+γ21N2+γ31+WseN3,  dN2dt=Wp1N0-γ21N2+γ25N5,  dN3dt=Wp800N0+WsaN1-γ30+γ31+Wp3+WseN3+γ43N4,  dN4dt=Wp2N1-γ43N4,  dN5dt=Wp3N3-γ50+γ52N5.
dPsdz=σesN3z-σasN1zΓsPsz-Pszαs,  dPpdz=-σp1aN0z+σp2aN1z+σp3aN3zΓpPpz-Ppzαp,  dPp800dz=-σp800aN0zΓp800Pp800z-Pp800zαp800,

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