The effect of delayed Raman response on soliton collisions in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) transmission systems is investigated. Taking into account the stochastic nature of pulse sequences in different frequency channels and the Raman-induced cross talk, it is shown that the soliton amplitude is a random variable with a log-normal distribution. Moreover, the Raman-induced self-frequency shift and cross-frequency shift are also random variables with log-normal-like distributions. These results imply that fluctuations in soliton amplitude and frequency induced by soliton collisions in the presence of delayed Raman response play an important role in massive WDM transmission.
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