Abstract

Coherent backscattering (CBS) of light in random media has been previously investigated by use of coherent light sources. Here we report a novel method of CBS measurement that combines low spatial coherence, broadband illumination, and spectrally resolved detection. We show that low spatial coherence illumination leads to an anomalously broad CBS peak and a dramatic speckle reduction; the latter is further facilitated by low temporal coherence detection. Thus CBS can be observed in biological tissue and other media that previously were beyond the reach of conventional CBS measurements. We also demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, spectroscopic analysis of CBS. CBS spectroscopy may find important applications in probing random media such as biological tissue in which depth-selective measurements are crucial.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2003 (1)

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 329 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 6, 651 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

M. Kobaek-Larsen, I. Thorup, A. Diederichsen, C. Fenger, and M. R. Hoitinga, Comp. Med. 50, 16 (2000).
[PubMed]

A. Wax, S. Bali, and J. E. Thomas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 66 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1990 (1)

1988 (1)

M. B. van der Mark, M. P. van Albada, and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. B 37, 3575 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

Backman, V.

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bali, S.

A. Wax, S. Bali, and J. E. Thomas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 66 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, K.

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Diederichsen, A.

M. Kobaek-Larsen, I. Thorup, A. Diederichsen, C. Fenger, and M. R. Hoitinga, Comp. Med. 50, 16 (2000).
[PubMed]

Fenger, C.

M. Kobaek-Larsen, I. Thorup, A. Diederichsen, C. Fenger, and M. R. Hoitinga, Comp. Med. 50, 16 (2000).
[PubMed]

Follen, M.

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 6, 651 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldberg, M. J.

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hoitinga, M. R.

M. Kobaek-Larsen, I. Thorup, A. Diederichsen, C. Fenger, and M. R. Hoitinga, Comp. Med. 50, 16 (2000).
[PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 329 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. L.

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kobaek-Larsen, M.

M. Kobaek-Larsen, I. Thorup, A. Diederichsen, C. Fenger, and M. R. Hoitinga, Comp. Med. 50, 16 (2000).
[PubMed]

Kromin, A. K.

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lagendijk, A.

M. B. van der Mark, M. P. van Albada, and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. B 37, 3575 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 329 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, F.

Liu, Y.

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ramella-Roman, J. C.

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 329 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 6, 651 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roy, D. N. G.

Roy, H. K.

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sokolov, K.

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 6, 651 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Straight, R. C.

Thomas, J. E.

A. Wax, S. Bali, and J. E. Thomas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 66 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thorup, I.

M. Kobaek-Larsen, I. Thorup, A. Diederichsen, C. Fenger, and M. R. Hoitinga, Comp. Med. 50, 16 (2000).
[PubMed]

van Albada, M. P.

M. B. van der Mark, M. P. van Albada, and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. B 37, 3575 (1988).
[CrossRef]

van der Mark, M. B.

M. B. van der Mark, M. P. van Albada, and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. B 37, 3575 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wali, R. K.

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wax, A.

A. Wax, S. Bali, and J. E. Thomas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 66 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoo, K. M.

Yoon, G.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Comp. Med. (1)

M. Kobaek-Larsen, I. Thorup, A. Diederichsen, C. Fenger, and M. R. Hoitinga, Comp. Med. 50, 16 (2000).
[PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. (1)

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 6, 651 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 329 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. B. van der Mark, M. P. van Albada, and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. B 37, 3575 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Wax, S. Bali, and J. E. Thomas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 66 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

lCBS spectroscopy instrument. (a) C, condenser; L1–L3, lenses; A1, A2, apertures; P’s, polarizers; M’s, mirrors; B, beam splitter; SS, sample stage; SP, spectrograph. (b) Unfolded view of light trajectories without the beam splitter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized angular distributions of backscattering from rat colon tissue. (a) Experimental data, LSC illumination (Xe lamp). (b) Experimental data, coherent illumination (He–Ne laser). (c) Simulation from the conventional diffusion-approximation-based CBS theory1 for ls*=660 µm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Inverse CBS peak width w-1 as a function of ls* for (a) coherent illumination (He–Ne laser) and (b) LSC illumination (Xe lamp). (c) w-1 as a function of LSC (ls*=2 mm). (d) CBS enhancement factor for LSC illumination.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

lCBS spectroscopy of rat colon tissues for detection of early precancer. (a) Normalized diffuse intensity measured from the colon of a rat treated with azoxymethane (AOM) and CBS spectrum measured from the same site. (b) Slopes of the CBS spectra (λ=520650 nm) obtained from precancerous and control tissues.

Equations (1)

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wλ/3πls*,

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