Abstract

A simple integrated optical refractometric sensor based on hollow-core antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides is proposed. The sensor uses the antiresonant reflecting guidance mechanism and permits one to measure the refractive index of a liquid filling the core by simply monitoring the transmitted spectrum. The device has been made with standard silicon technology, and the experimental results confirm numerical simulations performed in one- and two-dimensional geometry. The sensor exhibits a linear response over a wide measurement range (1.3330–1.4450) and a resolution of 9×10-4 and requires a small analyte volume.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Y. Saito, T. Kanaya, A. Nomura, and T. Kano, Opt. Lett. 18, 2150 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Delonges and H. Fouckhardt, J. Chromatogr. A 716, 135 (1995).
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  3. A. Grosse, M. Grewe, and H. Fouckhardt, J. Micromech. Microeng. 11, 257 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. N. McMullin, R. Narendra, and C. R. James, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1080 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. J. Goddard, K. Singh, F. Bounaria, R. J. Holmes, S. J. Baldock, L. W. Pickering, P. R. Fielden, and R. D. Snook, in Proceedings of the μTAS ’98 Workshop, D. J. Harrison and A. Van Den Berg, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1998), p. 97.
  6. R. Bernini, S. Campopiano, and L. Zeni, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 106 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2002

R. Bernini, S. Campopiano, and L. Zeni, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 106 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

A. Grosse, M. Grewe, and H. Fouckhardt, J. Micromech. Microeng. 11, 257 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1995

T. Delonges and H. Fouckhardt, J. Chromatogr. A 716, 135 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

Y. Saito, T. Kanaya, A. Nomura, and T. Kano, Opt. Lett. 18, 2150 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. N. McMullin, R. Narendra, and C. R. James, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1080 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Baldock, S. J.

N. J. Goddard, K. Singh, F. Bounaria, R. J. Holmes, S. J. Baldock, L. W. Pickering, P. R. Fielden, and R. D. Snook, in Proceedings of the μTAS ’98 Workshop, D. J. Harrison and A. Van Den Berg, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1998), p. 97.

Bernini, R.

R. Bernini, S. Campopiano, and L. Zeni, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 106 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bounaria, F.

N. J. Goddard, K. Singh, F. Bounaria, R. J. Holmes, S. J. Baldock, L. W. Pickering, P. R. Fielden, and R. D. Snook, in Proceedings of the μTAS ’98 Workshop, D. J. Harrison and A. Van Den Berg, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1998), p. 97.

Campopiano, S.

R. Bernini, S. Campopiano, and L. Zeni, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 106 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Delonges, T.

T. Delonges and H. Fouckhardt, J. Chromatogr. A 716, 135 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fielden, P. R.

N. J. Goddard, K. Singh, F. Bounaria, R. J. Holmes, S. J. Baldock, L. W. Pickering, P. R. Fielden, and R. D. Snook, in Proceedings of the μTAS ’98 Workshop, D. J. Harrison and A. Van Den Berg, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1998), p. 97.

Fouckhardt, H.

A. Grosse, M. Grewe, and H. Fouckhardt, J. Micromech. Microeng. 11, 257 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Delonges and H. Fouckhardt, J. Chromatogr. A 716, 135 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Goddard, N. J.

N. J. Goddard, K. Singh, F. Bounaria, R. J. Holmes, S. J. Baldock, L. W. Pickering, P. R. Fielden, and R. D. Snook, in Proceedings of the μTAS ’98 Workshop, D. J. Harrison and A. Van Den Berg, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1998), p. 97.

Grewe, M.

A. Grosse, M. Grewe, and H. Fouckhardt, J. Micromech. Microeng. 11, 257 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grosse, A.

A. Grosse, M. Grewe, and H. Fouckhardt, J. Micromech. Microeng. 11, 257 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, R. J.

N. J. Goddard, K. Singh, F. Bounaria, R. J. Holmes, S. J. Baldock, L. W. Pickering, P. R. Fielden, and R. D. Snook, in Proceedings of the μTAS ’98 Workshop, D. J. Harrison and A. Van Den Berg, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1998), p. 97.

James, C. R.

J. N. McMullin, R. Narendra, and C. R. James, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1080 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kanaya, T.

Kano, T.

McMullin, J. N.

J. N. McMullin, R. Narendra, and C. R. James, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1080 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Narendra, R.

J. N. McMullin, R. Narendra, and C. R. James, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1080 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nomura, A.

Pickering, L. W.

N. J. Goddard, K. Singh, F. Bounaria, R. J. Holmes, S. J. Baldock, L. W. Pickering, P. R. Fielden, and R. D. Snook, in Proceedings of the μTAS ’98 Workshop, D. J. Harrison and A. Van Den Berg, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1998), p. 97.

Saito, Y.

Singh, K.

N. J. Goddard, K. Singh, F. Bounaria, R. J. Holmes, S. J. Baldock, L. W. Pickering, P. R. Fielden, and R. D. Snook, in Proceedings of the μTAS ’98 Workshop, D. J. Harrison and A. Van Den Berg, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1998), p. 97.

Snook, R. D.

N. J. Goddard, K. Singh, F. Bounaria, R. J. Holmes, S. J. Baldock, L. W. Pickering, P. R. Fielden, and R. D. Snook, in Proceedings of the μTAS ’98 Workshop, D. J. Harrison and A. Van Den Berg, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1998), p. 97.

Zeni, L.

R. Bernini, S. Campopiano, and L. Zeni, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 106 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

R. Bernini, S. Campopiano, and L. Zeni, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 106 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. N. McMullin, R. Narendra, and C. R. James, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1080 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Chromatogr. A

T. Delonges and H. Fouckhardt, J. Chromatogr. A 716, 135 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng.

A. Grosse, M. Grewe, and H. Fouckhardt, J. Micromech. Microeng. 11, 257 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

N. J. Goddard, K. Singh, F. Bounaria, R. J. Holmes, S. J. Baldock, L. W. Pickering, P. R. Fielden, and R. D. Snook, in Proceedings of the μTAS ’98 Workshop, D. J. Harrison and A. Van Den Berg, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1998), p. 97.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transverse section of the hollow-core ARROW waveguide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the sensor used for the experimental measurements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured transmitted spectra near the first resonance wavelength λm for six core refractive indices (1.3330, 1.3520, 1.3830, 1.4065, 1.4258, and 1.4435).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sensor response: one-dimensional (1-D) and two-dimensional (2-D) models and experimental data.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d1,2=λ4n1,22-neff2-1/22N+1,N=0,1,2,,
neff=nc1-λ2ncdc21/2.
λm2d1Mn12-nc21/2,    M=1,2,3,,

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