Abstract

A novel technique is demonstrated for the imaging of turbulent flows in which a single window to the flow is the only optical access required. A femtosecond laser is used to excite two-photon fluorescence in a disodium-fluorescein-seeded water jet. The fluorescence signal is generated at only the focal point of the laser because of the highly nonlinear nature of the two-photon absorption, and it is collected in a direction counterpropagating to the excitation beam. Tight focusing of the laser is used to limit the probe volume, and the two-dimensional mean and rms concentration images are collected by raster scanning the laser.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. B. Kelman, G. Sherwood, F. O’Young, M. Berckmuel-ler, M. C. Jermy, A. R. Masri, and D. A. Greenhalgh, Proc. SPIE 4076, 55 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. K. Hanson, J. M. Seitzman, and P. H. Paul, Appl. Phys. B 50, 441 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Berckmueller, N. P. Tait, and D. A. Greenhalgh, in SAE Technical Paper 961929 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1996), pp. 77–99.
  4. M. Aldén, S. Wallin, and W. Wendt, Appl. Phys. B 33, 205 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. M. Seitzman, J. Haumann, and R. K. Hanson, Appl. Opt. 26, 2892 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. W. Sibbett, D. T. Reid, and M. Ebrahimzedah, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 356, 283 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. A. Greenhalgh, D. J. Bryce, R. D. Lockett, and S. C. Harding, in Advanced Non-Intrusive Instrumentation for Propulsion Engines, AGARD Conf. Proc.598, 25.1 (1998).

2000 (1)

J. B. Kelman, G. Sherwood, F. O’Young, M. Berckmuel-ler, M. C. Jermy, A. R. Masri, and D. A. Greenhalgh, Proc. SPIE 4076, 55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

W. Sibbett, D. T. Reid, and M. Ebrahimzedah, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 356, 283 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

R. K. Hanson, J. M. Seitzman, and P. H. Paul, Appl. Phys. B 50, 441 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1984 (1)

M. Aldén, S. Wallin, and W. Wendt, Appl. Phys. B 33, 205 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Aldén, M.

M. Aldén, S. Wallin, and W. Wendt, Appl. Phys. B 33, 205 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Berckmueller, M.

M. Berckmueller, N. P. Tait, and D. A. Greenhalgh, in SAE Technical Paper 961929 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1996), pp. 77–99.

Berckmuel-ler, M.

J. B. Kelman, G. Sherwood, F. O’Young, M. Berckmuel-ler, M. C. Jermy, A. R. Masri, and D. A. Greenhalgh, Proc. SPIE 4076, 55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bryce, D. J.

D. A. Greenhalgh, D. J. Bryce, R. D. Lockett, and S. C. Harding, in Advanced Non-Intrusive Instrumentation for Propulsion Engines, AGARD Conf. Proc.598, 25.1 (1998).

Ebrahimzedah, M.

W. Sibbett, D. T. Reid, and M. Ebrahimzedah, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 356, 283 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Greenhalgh, D. A.

J. B. Kelman, G. Sherwood, F. O’Young, M. Berckmuel-ler, M. C. Jermy, A. R. Masri, and D. A. Greenhalgh, Proc. SPIE 4076, 55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Berckmueller, N. P. Tait, and D. A. Greenhalgh, in SAE Technical Paper 961929 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1996), pp. 77–99.

D. A. Greenhalgh, D. J. Bryce, R. D. Lockett, and S. C. Harding, in Advanced Non-Intrusive Instrumentation for Propulsion Engines, AGARD Conf. Proc.598, 25.1 (1998).

Hanson, R. K.

R. K. Hanson, J. M. Seitzman, and P. H. Paul, Appl. Phys. B 50, 441 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Seitzman, J. Haumann, and R. K. Hanson, Appl. Opt. 26, 2892 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harding, S. C.

D. A. Greenhalgh, D. J. Bryce, R. D. Lockett, and S. C. Harding, in Advanced Non-Intrusive Instrumentation for Propulsion Engines, AGARD Conf. Proc.598, 25.1 (1998).

Haumann, J.

Jermy, M. C.

J. B. Kelman, G. Sherwood, F. O’Young, M. Berckmuel-ler, M. C. Jermy, A. R. Masri, and D. A. Greenhalgh, Proc. SPIE 4076, 55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kelman, J. B.

J. B. Kelman, G. Sherwood, F. O’Young, M. Berckmuel-ler, M. C. Jermy, A. R. Masri, and D. A. Greenhalgh, Proc. SPIE 4076, 55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lockett, R. D.

D. A. Greenhalgh, D. J. Bryce, R. D. Lockett, and S. C. Harding, in Advanced Non-Intrusive Instrumentation for Propulsion Engines, AGARD Conf. Proc.598, 25.1 (1998).

Masri, A. R.

J. B. Kelman, G. Sherwood, F. O’Young, M. Berckmuel-ler, M. C. Jermy, A. R. Masri, and D. A. Greenhalgh, Proc. SPIE 4076, 55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O’Young, F.

J. B. Kelman, G. Sherwood, F. O’Young, M. Berckmuel-ler, M. C. Jermy, A. R. Masri, and D. A. Greenhalgh, Proc. SPIE 4076, 55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Paul, P. H.

R. K. Hanson, J. M. Seitzman, and P. H. Paul, Appl. Phys. B 50, 441 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Reid, D. T.

W. Sibbett, D. T. Reid, and M. Ebrahimzedah, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 356, 283 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Seitzman, J. M.

R. K. Hanson, J. M. Seitzman, and P. H. Paul, Appl. Phys. B 50, 441 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Seitzman, J. Haumann, and R. K. Hanson, Appl. Opt. 26, 2892 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sherwood, G.

J. B. Kelman, G. Sherwood, F. O’Young, M. Berckmuel-ler, M. C. Jermy, A. R. Masri, and D. A. Greenhalgh, Proc. SPIE 4076, 55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

W. Sibbett, D. T. Reid, and M. Ebrahimzedah, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 356, 283 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tait, N. P.

M. Berckmueller, N. P. Tait, and D. A. Greenhalgh, in SAE Technical Paper 961929 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1996), pp. 77–99.

Wallin, S.

M. Aldén, S. Wallin, and W. Wendt, Appl. Phys. B 33, 205 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wendt, W.

M. Aldén, S. Wallin, and W. Wendt, Appl. Phys. B 33, 205 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

R. K. Hanson, J. M. Seitzman, and P. H. Paul, Appl. Phys. B 50, 441 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Aldén, S. Wallin, and W. Wendt, Appl. Phys. B 33, 205 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A (1)

W. Sibbett, D. T. Reid, and M. Ebrahimzedah, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 356, 283 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. B. Kelman, G. Sherwood, F. O’Young, M. Berckmuel-ler, M. C. Jermy, A. R. Masri, and D. A. Greenhalgh, Proc. SPIE 4076, 55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

D. A. Greenhalgh, D. J. Bryce, R. D. Lockett, and S. C. Harding, in Advanced Non-Intrusive Instrumentation for Propulsion Engines, AGARD Conf. Proc.598, 25.1 (1998).

M. Berckmueller, N. P. Tait, and D. A. Greenhalgh, in SAE Technical Paper 961929 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1996), pp. 77–99.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental configuration used for single-point-access laser imaging. M1, pair of orthogonal galvanometer scanning mirrors; L1, 35-mm focal-length scan lens; L2, 250-mm focal-length tube lens forming a beam-expanding telescope with L1; L3, 75-mm focal-length objective lens; L4, 75-mm focal-length fluorescence collection lens; BS, dichroic beam splitter with high reflectivity at 800 nm and high transmission at 500 nm; FC, flow cell; DSF, disodium fluorescein solution; PMT, photomultiplier detector; SPF, short-pass filter (λ<550 nm). The black rays represent the excitation beam (800 nm), and the gray rays show the emitted fluorescence (500 nm). The scanned beam is shown at one extreme of its range.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fluorescence signal intensity versus (a) laser power and (b) tracer concentration.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mean (left) and rms (right) concentration images in a turbulent water jet. The arrows indicate the position of the 2-mm jet. The images collected with two-photon LIF are superimposed on the PLIF images in white boxes.

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