Abstract

Optical dark traps such as Laguerre–Gaussian beams, modulated optical vortices, and high-order Bessel beams have been used in the micromanipulation of microparticles. Such optical traps are highly versatile, as they are able to trap both high- and low-index microparticles as well as to set them into rotation by use of the orbital angular momentum of light. Holography has been widely used to modulate the shape of an optical vortex for new optical traps. We show that, by designing the shape of a spiral phase plate and using electron-beam lithography for fabrication, one can modulate the amplitude and the phase of an optical vortex with respect to the specific shape of the spiral phase plate as required. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge this is the first report of transferring orbital angular momentum from a spiral phase plate to an absorptive microparticle in an experiment. Hence, with this technique, optical dark traps can easily be designed and fabricated.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2004

2003

W. M. Lee and X.-C. Yuan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Dasgupta, S. K. Mohanty, and P. K. Gupta, Biotechnol. Lett. 25, 1625 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Lang, P. M. Fordyce, and S. M. Block, J. Biol. 2, 6 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Kudryashov, X.-C. Yuan, W. C. Cheong, and K. Radhakrishnan, Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 306 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Zhang and X.-C. Yuan, Opt. Lett. 28, 740 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Curtis and D. G. Grier, Opt. Lett. 28, 872 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

V. Garcés-Chávez, K. Volke-Sepulveda, S. Chávez-Cerda, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Phys. Rev. A 65, 063402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Ganic, X.-S. Gan, M. Gu, M. Hain, S. Somalingam, S. Stankiovic, and T. Tschudi, Opt. Lett. 27, 1351 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Rhodes, G. P. T. Lancaster, J. Livesey, D. McGloin, J. Arlt, and K. Dholakia, Opt. Commun. 214, 247 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Dumke, M. Volk, T. Muther, F. B. J. Buchkremer, G. Birkl, and W. Ertmer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 097903 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Kennedy, M. J. Szabo, H. Teslow, J. Z. Porterfield, and E. R. I. Abraham, Phys. Rev. A 66, 043801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

A. T. O'Neil and M. J. Padgett, Opt. Commun. 193, 45 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

1996

G. A. Turnbull, D. A. Robertson, G. M. Smith, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, Opt. Commun. 127, 183 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 112, 321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

Abraham, E. R. I.

S. A. Kennedy, M. J. Szabo, H. Teslow, J. Z. Porterfield, and E. R. I. Abraham, Phys. Rev. A 66, 043801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Allen, L.

G. A. Turnbull, D. A. Robertson, G. M. Smith, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, Opt. Commun. 127, 183 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arlt, J.

D. P. Rhodes, G. P. T. Lancaster, J. Livesey, D. McGloin, J. Arlt, and K. Dholakia, Opt. Commun. 214, 247 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A.

Beijersbergen, M. W.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 112, 321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birkl, G.

R. Dumke, M. Volk, T. Muther, F. B. J. Buchkremer, G. Birkl, and W. Ertmer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 097903 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Block, S. M.

M. J. Lang, P. M. Fordyce, and S. M. Block, J. Biol. 2, 6 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Buchkremer, F. B. J.

R. Dumke, M. Volk, T. Muther, F. B. J. Buchkremer, G. Birkl, and W. Ertmer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 097903 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chávez-Cerda, S.

V. Garcés-Chávez, K. Volke-Sepulveda, S. Chávez-Cerda, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Phys. Rev. A 65, 063402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, W. C.

V. Kudryashov, X.-C. Yuan, W. C. Cheong, and K. Radhakrishnan, Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 306 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

Coerwinkel, R. P. C.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 112, 321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Curtis, J. E.

Dasgupta, R.

R. Dasgupta, S. K. Mohanty, and P. K. Gupta, Biotechnol. Lett. 25, 1625 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dholakia, K.

D. P. Rhodes, G. P. T. Lancaster, J. Livesey, D. McGloin, J. Arlt, and K. Dholakia, Opt. Commun. 214, 247 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Garcés-Chávez, K. Volke-Sepulveda, S. Chávez-Cerda, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Phys. Rev. A 65, 063402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dumke, R.

R. Dumke, M. Volk, T. Muther, F. B. J. Buchkremer, G. Birkl, and W. Ertmer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 097903 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dziedzic, J. M.

Eliel, E. R.

Ertmer, W.

R. Dumke, M. Volk, T. Muther, F. B. J. Buchkremer, G. Birkl, and W. Ertmer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 097903 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fordyce, P. M.

M. J. Lang, P. M. Fordyce, and S. M. Block, J. Biol. 2, 6 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Friese, M. E. J.

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gahagan, K. T.

Gan, X.-S.

Ganic, D.

Garcés-Chávez, V.

V. Garcés-Chávez, K. Volke-Sepulveda, S. Chávez-Cerda, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Phys. Rev. A 65, 063402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grier, D. G.

Gu, M.

Gupta, P. K.

R. Dasgupta, S. K. Mohanty, and P. K. Gupta, Biotechnol. Lett. 25, 1625 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hain, M.

He, H.

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heckenberg, N. R.

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kennedy, S. A.

S. A. Kennedy, M. J. Szabo, H. Teslow, J. Z. Porterfield, and E. R. I. Abraham, Phys. Rev. A 66, 043801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kloosterboer, J. G.

Kristensen, M.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 112, 321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kudryashov, V.

V. Kudryashov, X.-C. Yuan, W. C. Cheong, and K. Radhakrishnan, Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 306 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lancaster, G. P. T.

D. P. Rhodes, G. P. T. Lancaster, J. Livesey, D. McGloin, J. Arlt, and K. Dholakia, Opt. Commun. 214, 247 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lang, M. J.

M. J. Lang, P. M. Fordyce, and S. M. Block, J. Biol. 2, 6 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. M.

W. M. Lee and X.-C. Yuan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Livesey, J.

D. P. Rhodes, G. P. T. Lancaster, J. Livesey, D. McGloin, J. Arlt, and K. Dholakia, Opt. Commun. 214, 247 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McGloin, D.

D. P. Rhodes, G. P. T. Lancaster, J. Livesey, D. McGloin, J. Arlt, and K. Dholakia, Opt. Commun. 214, 247 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mohanty, S. K.

R. Dasgupta, S. K. Mohanty, and P. K. Gupta, Biotechnol. Lett. 25, 1625 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muther, T.

R. Dumke, M. Volk, T. Muther, F. B. J. Buchkremer, G. Birkl, and W. Ertmer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 097903 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Oemrawsingh, S. S. R.

O'Neil, A. T.

A. T. O'Neil and M. J. Padgett, Opt. Commun. 193, 45 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M. J.

A. T. O'Neil and M. J. Padgett, Opt. Commun. 193, 45 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Turnbull, D. A. Robertson, G. M. Smith, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, Opt. Commun. 127, 183 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Porterfield, J. Z.

S. A. Kennedy, M. J. Szabo, H. Teslow, J. Z. Porterfield, and E. R. I. Abraham, Phys. Rev. A 66, 043801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Radhakrishnan, K.

V. Kudryashov, X.-C. Yuan, W. C. Cheong, and K. Radhakrishnan, Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 306 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rhodes, D. P.

D. P. Rhodes, G. P. T. Lancaster, J. Livesey, D. McGloin, J. Arlt, and K. Dholakia, Opt. Commun. 214, 247 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, D. A.

G. A. Turnbull, D. A. Robertson, G. M. Smith, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, Opt. Commun. 127, 183 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H.

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sibbett, W.

V. Garcés-Chávez, K. Volke-Sepulveda, S. Chávez-Cerda, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Phys. Rev. A 65, 063402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G. M.

G. A. Turnbull, D. A. Robertson, G. M. Smith, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, Opt. Commun. 127, 183 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Somalingam, S.

Spreeuw, R. J. C.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stankiovic, S.

Swartzlander, G. A.

Swartzlander, Jr., G. A.

Szabo, M. J.

S. A. Kennedy, M. J. Szabo, H. Teslow, J. Z. Porterfield, and E. R. I. Abraham, Phys. Rev. A 66, 043801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

't Hooft, G. W.

Teslow, H.

S. A. Kennedy, M. J. Szabo, H. Teslow, J. Z. Porterfield, and E. R. I. Abraham, Phys. Rev. A 66, 043801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tschudi, T.

Turnbull, G. A.

G. A. Turnbull, D. A. Robertson, G. M. Smith, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, Opt. Commun. 127, 183 (1996).
[CrossRef]

van Houwelingen, J. A. W.

Verstegen, E. J. K.

Volk, M.

R. Dumke, M. Volk, T. Muther, F. B. J. Buchkremer, G. Birkl, and W. Ertmer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 097903 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Volke-Sepulveda, K.

V. Garcés-Chávez, K. Volke-Sepulveda, S. Chávez-Cerda, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Phys. Rev. A 65, 063402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Woerdman, J. P.

S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, E. R. Eliel, J. P. Woerdman, E. J. K. Verstegen, J. G. Kloosterboer, and G. W. 't Hooft, Appl. Opt. 43, 688 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 112, 321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, X.-C.

V. Kudryashov, X.-C. Yuan, W. C. Cheong, and K. Radhakrishnan, Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 306 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Lee and X.-C. Yuan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Zhang and X.-C. Yuan, Opt. Lett. 28, 740 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, D. W.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. M. Lee and X.-C. Yuan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Biotechnol. Lett.

R. Dasgupta, S. K. Mohanty, and P. K. Gupta, Biotechnol. Lett. 25, 1625 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biol.

M. J. Lang, P. M. Fordyce, and S. M. Block, J. Biol. 2, 6 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Microelectron. Eng.

V. Kudryashov, X.-C. Yuan, W. C. Cheong, and K. Radhakrishnan, Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 306 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

A. T. O'Neil and M. J. Padgett, Opt. Commun. 193, 45 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Turnbull, D. A. Robertson, G. M. Smith, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, Opt. Commun. 127, 183 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 112, 321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Rhodes, G. P. T. Lancaster, J. Livesey, D. McGloin, J. Arlt, and K. Dholakia, Opt. Commun. 214, 247 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

V. Garcés-Chávez, K. Volke-Sepulveda, S. Chávez-Cerda, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Phys. Rev. A 65, 063402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

R. Dumke, M. Volk, T. Muther, F. B. J. Buchkremer, G. Birkl, and W. Ertmer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 097903 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

S. A. Kennedy, M. J. Szabo, H. Teslow, J. Z. Porterfield, and E. R. I. Abraham, Phys. Rev. A 66, 043801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A, Mathematical plot of the elliptical area. B, Elliptical spiral phase distribution from the mathematical plot and C, elliptical spiral phase plate (500 µm by 250 µm), both in the counterclockwise direction. D, Elliptical optical vortex propagated to the far field.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Linearly polarized 30-mW He–Ne laser is directed onto an optical tool kit. The single optical tool kit is mounted onto a rotating xyz stage inserted between optical lenses. Lens L1 is used to focus the optical beam onto the phase elements; lens L2 focuses the optical trap into the 100× objective of N.A. 1.25.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Silica microspheres of 3 µm, each with a refractive index of 1.4 trapped at the intensity rings of the elliptical vortex beam. (The elliptical beam is oriented 45° from the horizontal.)

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Orbital angular momentum transferred onto an absorptive irregular microparticle of 5µm width and 14µm length in the collected sample of rainwater. The microparticle was stably rotating at a relatively low rate because of the size of the microparticle, which creates a high drag force, for an hour before the optical beam was released, after which the particle rotation stopped.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

LGr,ϕ,z=Gr,ϕ,zexpilϕ,
LGr,ϕ,z=Gr,ϕ,zexpilϕx,y.
Γz=P2πνl,

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