Abstract

Results of atmospheric propagation for a high-speed, large-actuator-number adaptive optics system are presented. The system uses a microelectromechanical system- (MEMS-) based spatial light modulator correction device with 1024 actuators. Tests over a 1.35-km path achieved correction speeds in excess of 800 Hz and Strehl ratios close to 0.5. The wave-front sensor was based on a quadrature interferometer that directly measures phase. This technique does not require global wave-front reconstruction, making it relatively insensitive to scintillation and phase residues. The results demonstrate the potential of large-actuator-number MEMS-based spatial light modulators to replace conventional deformable mirrors.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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[CrossRef]

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C. A. Thompson, M. W. Kartz, L. M. Flath, S. C. Wilks, R. A. Young, G. W. Johnson, and A. J. Ruggiero, Proc. SPIE 4821, 129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

T. G. Bifano, J. Perreault, R. Krishnamoorthy Mali, and M. N. Horenstein, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 83 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

T. J. Flynn, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2692 (1997).
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M. C. Roggeman, V. M. Bright, B. M. Welsh, S. R. Hick, P. C. Roberts, W. D. Cowan, and J. H. Comtois, Opt. Eng. 36, 1326 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

1966 (1)

Andrews, N.

Baker, K. L.

Barnes, T. H.

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[CrossRef]

Bright, V. M.

M. C. Roggeman, V. M. Bright, B. M. Welsh, S. R. Hick, P. C. Roberts, W. D. Cowan, and J. H. Comtois, Opt. Eng. 36, 1326 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Burch, P.

Buscher, D.

Comtois, J. H.

M. C. Roggeman, V. M. Bright, B. M. Welsh, S. R. Hick, P. C. Roberts, W. D. Cowan, and J. H. Comtois, Opt. Eng. 36, 1326 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cowan, W. D.

M. C. Roggeman, V. M. Bright, B. M. Welsh, S. R. Hick, P. C. Roberts, W. D. Cowan, and J. H. Comtois, Opt. Eng. 36, 1326 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Doel, P.

Dou, R.

Dunlop, C.

Flath, L. M.

C. A. Thompson, M. W. Kartz, L. M. Flath, S. C. Wilks, R. A. Young, G. W. Johnson, and A. J. Ruggiero, Proc. SPIE 4821, 129 (2002).
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Hardy, J. W.

J. W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes (Oxford U. Press, London, 1998).

Haskell, T. G.

Hick, S. R.

M. C. Roggeman, V. M. Bright, B. M. Welsh, S. R. Hick, P. C. Roberts, W. D. Cowan, and J. H. Comtois, Opt. Eng. 36, 1326 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Horenstein, M. N.

T. G. Bifano, J. Perreault, R. Krishnamoorthy Mali, and M. N. Horenstein, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 83 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, G. W.

C. A. Thompson, M. W. Kartz, L. M. Flath, S. C. Wilks, R. A. Young, G. W. Johnson, and A. J. Ruggiero, Proc. SPIE 4821, 129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kartz, M. W.

C. A. Thompson, M. W. Kartz, L. M. Flath, S. C. Wilks, R. A. Young, G. W. Johnson, and A. J. Ruggiero, Proc. SPIE 4821, 129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy Mali, R.

T. G. Bifano, J. Perreault, R. Krishnamoorthy Mali, and M. N. Horenstein, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 83 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Love, G. D.

Major, J.

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Olivier, S. S.

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T. G. Bifano, J. Perreault, R. Krishnamoorthy Mali, and M. N. Horenstein, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 83 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Restaino, S. R.

Roberts, P. C.

M. C. Roggeman, V. M. Bright, B. M. Welsh, S. R. Hick, P. C. Roberts, W. D. Cowan, and J. H. Comtois, Opt. Eng. 36, 1326 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Roggeman, M. C.

M. C. Roggeman, V. M. Bright, B. M. Welsh, S. R. Hick, P. C. Roberts, W. D. Cowan, and J. H. Comtois, Opt. Eng. 36, 1326 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ruggiero, A. J.

C. A. Thompson, M. W. Kartz, L. M. Flath, S. C. Wilks, R. A. Young, G. W. Johnson, and A. J. Ruggiero, Proc. SPIE 4821, 129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sharples, R.

Shirai, T.

Silva, D. A.

Stappaerts, E. A.

Thompson, C. A.

C. A. Thompson, M. W. Kartz, L. M. Flath, S. C. Wilks, R. A. Young, G. W. Johnson, and A. J. Ruggiero, Proc. SPIE 4821, 129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tucker, J.

Tyson, R. K.

R. K. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics (Academic, Boston, Mass., 1998).

Vick, A.

Vorontsov, M. A.

T. Weyrauch and M. A. Vorontsov, Proc. SPIE 5162, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Welsh, B. M.

M. C. Roggeman, V. M. Bright, B. M. Welsh, S. R. Hick, P. C. Roberts, W. D. Cowan, and J. H. Comtois, Opt. Eng. 36, 1326 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Weyrauch, T.

T. Weyrauch and M. A. Vorontsov, Proc. SPIE 5162, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wilks, S. C.

Young, P. E.

Young, R. A.

C. A. Thompson, M. W. Kartz, L. M. Flath, S. C. Wilks, R. A. Young, G. W. Johnson, and A. J. Ruggiero, Proc. SPIE 4821, 129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zadrozny, A.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. G. Bifano, J. Perreault, R. Krishnamoorthy Mali, and M. N. Horenstein, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 83 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. C. Roggeman, V. M. Bright, B. M. Welsh, S. R. Hick, P. C. Roberts, W. D. Cowan, and J. H. Comtois, Opt. Eng. 36, 1326 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. SPIE (2)

C. A. Thompson, M. W. Kartz, L. M. Flath, S. C. Wilks, R. A. Young, G. W. Johnson, and A. J. Ruggiero, Proc. SPIE 4821, 129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Weyrauch and M. A. Vorontsov, Proc. SPIE 5162, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes (Oxford U. Press, London, 1998).

R. K. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics (Academic, Boston, Mass., 1998).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Field test setup used to test the performance of the phase-conjugation engine over a 1.35-km atmospheric path: BSs, beam splitters; M’s, mirrors; L’s, lenses; S’s, shutters; A’s, apertures; TFPs, thin-film polarizers; λ/2s and λ/4s, half- and quarter-wave plates, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Phase structure function averaged over 3000 measured functions, which we calculated by unwrapping the wrapped phases determined from 3000 sets of sine and cosine interferograms.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

PSFs for the (a) uncorrected and (b) corrected probe beams after propagation through the atmosphere.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Absolute Strehl ratios as a function of time. The solid lighter curve represents the Strehl ratio with the system turned off but with the center of mass of the PSF moved to the central axis, as would occur if a tip–tilt system were running.

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