Abstract

We developed a miniature endoscope that is capable of rapid lateral scanning and is suitable for real-time forward-imaging optical coherence tomography (OCT). The endoscope has an outer diameter of 2.4 mm, consisting of a miniature tubular lead zirconate titanate (PZT) actuator, a single-mode fiber-optic cantilever, and a graded-index lens. Rapid lateral scanning at 2.8 kHz is achieved when the fiber-optic cantilever is resonated with the PZT actuator. This allows OCT imaging to be performed by fast lateral beam scanning followed by slow depth scanning, which is different from the conventional OCT imaging sequence. Real-time OCT imaging with the endoscope operated in the new image acquisition sequence at 6 frames/s is demonstrated.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2004

2003

2002

E. Seibel and Q. Y. J. Smithwick, Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 177 (2002).

2001

2000

1999

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, W. Drexler, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 144 (1999).
[PubMed]

X. D. Li, J. Herrmann, R. Ghanta, C. Pitris, W. Drexler, C. Jesser, D. Stamper, D. Golden, S. Martin, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. Brezinski, Proc. SPIE 3598, 152 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

G. Binnig and D. P. E. Smith, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 1688 (1986).

Baumgartner, A.

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, W. Drexler, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 144 (1999).
[PubMed]

Binnig, G.

G. Binnig and D. P. E. Smith, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 1688 (1986).

Boppart, S. A.

Bouma, B. E.

Brezinski, M.

X. D. Li, J. Herrmann, R. Ghanta, C. Pitris, W. Drexler, C. Jesser, D. Stamper, D. Golden, S. Martin, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. Brezinski, Proc. SPIE 3598, 152 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brezinski, M. E.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z. P.

Chudoba, C.

Chumakov, Yu. P.

Cobb, M. J.

Coppens, A. B.

L. E. Kinsler, A. R. Frey, A. B. Coppens, and J. V. Sanders, Fundamentals of Acoustics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

de Boer, J. F.

Denisenko, A. N.

Drexler, W.

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, W. Drexler, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 144 (1999).
[PubMed]

X. D. Li, J. Herrmann, R. Ghanta, C. Pitris, W. Drexler, C. Jesser, D. Stamper, D. Golden, S. Martin, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. Brezinski, Proc. SPIE 3598, 152 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fedder, G. K.

Feldchtein, F. I.

Fercher, A. F.

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, W. Drexler, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 144 (1999).
[PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frey, A. R.

L. E. Kinsler, A. R. Frey, A. B. Coppens, and J. V. Sanders, Fundamentals of Acoustics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gelikonov, G. V.

Gelikonov, V. M.

Ghanta, R.

X. D. Li, J. Herrmann, R. Ghanta, C. Pitris, W. Drexler, C. Jesser, D. Stamper, D. Golden, S. Martin, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. Brezinski, Proc. SPIE 3598, 152 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gladkova, N. D.

Golden, D.

X. D. Li, J. Herrmann, R. Ghanta, C. Pitris, W. Drexler, C. Jesser, D. Stamper, D. Golden, S. Martin, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. Brezinski, Proc. SPIE 3598, 152 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartl, I.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herrmann, J.

X. D. Li, J. Herrmann, R. Ghanta, C. Pitris, W. Drexler, C. Jesser, D. Stamper, D. Golden, S. Martin, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. Brezinski, Proc. SPIE 3598, 152 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, W. Drexler, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 144 (1999).
[PubMed]

Hsiung, P. L.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jesser, C.

X. D. Li, J. Herrmann, R. Ghanta, C. Pitris, W. Drexler, C. Jesser, D. Stamper, D. Golden, S. Martin, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. Brezinski, Proc. SPIE 3598, 152 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kinsler, L. E.

L. E. Kinsler, A. R. Frey, A. B. Coppens, and J. V. Sanders, Fundamentals of Acoustics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Ko, T. H.

Kuranov, R. V.

Kuznetzova, I. A.

Li, X. D.

X. M. Liu, M. J. Cobb, and X. D. Li, Opt. Lett. 29, 80 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. L. Hsiung, X. D. Li, C. Chudoba, I. Hartl, T. H. Ko, and J. G. Fujimoto, Appl. Opt. 42, 640 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. D. Li, J. Herrmann, R. Ghanta, C. Pitris, W. Drexler, C. Jesser, D. Stamper, D. Golden, S. Martin, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. Brezinski, Proc. SPIE 3598, 152 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X. M.

Martin, S.

X. D. Li, J. Herrmann, R. Ghanta, C. Pitris, W. Drexler, C. Jesser, D. Stamper, D. Golden, S. Martin, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. Brezinski, Proc. SPIE 3598, 152 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J. S.

Pan, Y. T.

Pitris, C.

X. D. Li, J. Herrmann, R. Ghanta, C. Pitris, W. Drexler, C. Jesser, D. Stamper, D. Golden, S. Martin, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. Brezinski, Proc. SPIE 3598, 152 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, G. J. Tearney, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, Opt. Lett. 22, 1618 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pochinko, V. V.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanders, J. V.

L. E. Kinsler, A. R. Frey, A. B. Coppens, and J. V. Sanders, Fundamentals of Acoustics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Saxer, C.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seibel, E.

E. Seibel and Q. Y. J. Smithwick, Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 177 (2002).

Sergeev, A. M.

Shakhov, A. V.

Shakhova, N. M.

Smith, D. P. E.

G. Binnig and D. P. E. Smith, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 1688 (1986).

Smithwick, Q. Y. J.

E. Seibel and Q. Y. J. Smithwick, Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 177 (2002).

Snopova, L. B.

Southern, J. F.

Stamper, D.

X. D. Li, J. Herrmann, R. Ghanta, C. Pitris, W. Drexler, C. Jesser, D. Stamper, D. Golden, S. Martin, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. Brezinski, Proc. SPIE 3598, 152 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Streltzova, O. S.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Weissman, N. J.

Xiang, S. H.

Xie, H. K.

Zhao, Y. H.

Appl. Opt.

J. Biomed. Opt.

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, W. Drexler, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 144 (1999).
[PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med.

E. Seibel and Q. Y. J. Smithwick, Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 177 (2002).

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

X. D. Li, J. Herrmann, R. Ghanta, C. Pitris, W. Drexler, C. Jesser, D. Stamper, D. Golden, S. Martin, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. Brezinski, Proc. SPIE 3598, 152 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

G. Binnig and D. P. E. Smith, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 1688 (1986).

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

F. I. Feldchtein, V. M. Gelikonov, and G. V. Gelikonov, in Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography, B. E. Bouma and G. J. Tearney, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2001), pp. 125–142.
[CrossRef]

L. E. Kinsler, A. R. Frey, A. B. Coppens, and J. V. Sanders, Fundamentals of Acoustics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(A) Schematic of the rapid-scanning forward-imaging miniature endoscope. (B) Photograph of a resonating single-mode fiber-optic cantilever. (C) Photograph of the miniature endoscope. The rigid portion is 32 mm long. SMF, single-mode fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the fiber-optic OCT system with the miniature rapid-scanning endoscope and an electro-optic phase modulator for achieving a 1.5-MHz Doppler frequency shift. A phase-controlled optical delay line was used in the reference arm for dispersion management and slow depth scanning. The rapid lateral scanning is achieved by resonating the fiber cantilever with a tubular PZT actuator. A/D, analog-to-digital converter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

OCT images acquired by the miniature endoscope along with the lateral-priority image acquisition sequence. (A) Image of a fresh porcine esophagus specimen acquired at 3 frames/s with 1000×930 pixels 2.0 mm×1.3 mm,transverse×depth. Layered structures including the epithelium (EP), lamina propria (LP), muscularis mucosa (MM), submucosa (SM), and muscularis propria (MP) can be clearly demarcated. (B) OCT image of a fingertip acquired at 6 frames/s with 1000×465 pixels 2.0 mm×1.3 mm,transverse×depth. The stratum corneum (SC), sweat duct (SD), and fingerprint ridges can be clearly delineated.

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