Abstract

High-resolution optical coherence tomography demands a large detector bandwidth and a high numerical aperture for real-time imaging, which is difficult to achieve over a large imaging depth. To resolve these conflicting requirements we propose a novel multifocus fiber-based optical coherence tomography system with a micromachined array tip. We demonstrate the fabrication of a prototype four-channel tip that maintains a 914µm spot diameter with more than 500 µm of imaging depth. Images of a resolution target and a human tooth were obtained with this tip by use of a four-channel cascaded Michelson fiber-optic interferometer, scanned simultaneously at 8 kHz with geometric power distribution across the four channels.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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2004 (1)

B. Qi, P. A. Himmer, M. L. Gordon, V. X. D. Yang, D. L. Dickensheets, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Commun. 232, 123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

2002 (2)

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

J. M. Schmitt, S. L. Lee, and K. M. Yung, Opt. Commun. 142, 203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akiba, M.

Boccara, A. C.

Boppart, S. A.

Chan, K. P.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Colston, B. W.

DaSilva, L. B.

Dickensheets, D. L.

B. Qi, P. A. Himmer, M. L. Gordon, V. X. D. Yang, D. L. Dickensheets, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Commun. 232, 123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Drexler, W.

Dubois, A.

Ducros, M.

Everett, M. J.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kartner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 24, 1221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, M. L.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Himmer, P. A.

B. Qi, P. A. Himmer, M. L. Gordon, V. X. D. Yang, D. L. Dickensheets, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Commun. 232, 123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

Karamata, B.

Kartner, F. X.

Lasser, T.

Laubscher, M.

Lee, S. L.

J. M. Schmitt, S. L. Lee, and K. M. Yung, Opt. Commun. 142, 203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. D.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, S.

Mok, A.

Morgner, U.

Nathel, H.

Nelson, J. S.

Netter, F.

F. Netter, Atlas of Human Anatomy (Icon Learning, Teeterboro, N.J., 1998).

Otis, L. L.

Pekar, J.

Pitris, C.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qi, B.

Salathé, R.

Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Schmitt, S. L. Lee, and K. M. Yung, Opt. Commun. 142, 203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seng-Yue, E.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stroeve, P.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanno, N.

Vabre, L.

Vitkin, I. A.

Wang, Y.

Wilson, B. C.

Windeler, R. S.

Yang, V. X. D.

Yung, K. M.

J. M. Schmitt, S. L. Lee, and K. M. Yung, Opt. Commun. 142, 203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic for forming multiple foci by use of a linear fiber array. (b) CLSM transmission image (gray scale) of the array during fabrication, overlaid with UV-cured optical adhesive fluorescence (gray). (c) Scanning electron microscopy image of the completed array after acetone cleaning. (d) Simulated focus profile of the array where the origin is the lens focal spot, using a lens with a NA of 0.15 and Gaussian beam optics. The 125µm lateral displacement between the focal zones is compensated by image realignment.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic of the fiber-optic cascaded Michelson interferometer. TS, translation stage; FCs, fiber collimators; PCs, polarization controllers; Ln, Dn, FLn, Rn, Sn: light source, detector, fiber loops, reference and sample arms of the nth cascade, respectively. (b) Calculated OCT signal levels (assuming tissue optical attenuation of 3.2 mm-1 and a collimated beam and ignoring coupling losses) with geometric power distribution in the four channels, illustrating better power utilization along the imaging depth. If a single channel is used to image the entire 500µm depth, the required dynamic range is 28 dB. This is reduced to 5 dB when four channels are used with geometric power distribution.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measured beam profiles of the array in air when channel # 4 fiber is in focus (channel # 2 has excess loss as a result of coupling imperfection). (b) Focal spot detail of the fiber in focus. (c) Calculated (lines) and measured (bars) FWHM diameters of the array: single channel (dashed curve) and full array (solid curve). The error bars indicate variations of the beam diameter measured at orthogonal angles.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) OCT images of resolution target (9µm bars) acquired by channels # 1 (in focus) and # 2 (out of focus). (b) Anatomy of the human tooth (adapted from Ref. 11), with the small box indicating the dentin–enamel interface zone. (c) Fused image acquired from the four-channel OCT system of a tooth from a cadaver, clearly demonstrating the dentin–enamel interface. Intensity discrepancies between channels are due to image fusion imperfections.

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