Abstract

We present a novel signal-processing algorithm for single-mode optical fiber extrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometric sensors that can achieve both high-resolution, absolute measurement of the cavity length and a large dynamic measurement range simultaneously. The algorithm is based on an accurate model of the characteristics of a fiber-optic sensor that takes into account the phase shift that is due to the coupling of light reflected at the second surface to the lead-in fiber end.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. Li, R. G. May, A. Wang, and R. O. Claus, Appl. Opt. 36, 8858 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. B. Yuan, L. M. Zhou, W. Jin, and C. C. Chan, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 4648 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. Bhatia, M. B. Sen, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, Electron. Lett. 32, 247 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. Qi, G. R. Pickwell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Pulliam, P. Russler, R. Mlcak, K. Murphy, and C. Kozikowski, Proc. SPIE 4202, 21 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. Arya, M. de Vries, K. A. Murphy, A. Wang, and R. O. Claus, Opt. Fiber Technol. 1, 380 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. P. Banerjee and T.-C. Poon, Principles of Applied Optics (Irwin, Homewood, Ill., 1991).
  8. C. M. Miller, S. C. Mettler, and I. A. White, Optical Fiber Splices and Connectors: Theory and Methods (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1986).
  9. G. Belleville and G. Duplain, Opt. Lett. 18, 78 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. Marcuse, Appl. Opt. 23, 1082 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Bjarklev, J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 341 (1986).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (1)

B. Qi, G. R. Pickwell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

W. Pulliam, P. Russler, R. Mlcak, K. Murphy, and C. Kozikowski, Proc. SPIE 4202, 21 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Yuan, L. M. Zhou, W. Jin, and C. C. Chan, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 4648 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

V. Bhatia, M. B. Sen, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, Electron. Lett. 32, 247 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

V. Arya, M. de Vries, K. A. Murphy, A. Wang, and R. O. Claus, Opt. Fiber Technol. 1, 380 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1986 (1)

A. Bjarklev, J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 341 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

Arya, V.

V. Arya, M. de Vries, K. A. Murphy, A. Wang, and R. O. Claus, Opt. Fiber Technol. 1, 380 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, P. P.

P. P. Banerjee and T.-C. Poon, Principles of Applied Optics (Irwin, Homewood, Ill., 1991).

Belleville, G.

Bhatia, V.

V. Bhatia, M. B. Sen, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, Electron. Lett. 32, 247 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bjarklev, A.

A. Bjarklev, J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 341 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. C.

L. B. Yuan, L. M. Zhou, W. Jin, and C. C. Chan, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 4648 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Claus, R. O.

T. Li, R. G. May, A. Wang, and R. O. Claus, Appl. Opt. 36, 8858 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Bhatia, M. B. Sen, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, Electron. Lett. 32, 247 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. Arya, M. de Vries, K. A. Murphy, A. Wang, and R. O. Claus, Opt. Fiber Technol. 1, 380 (1995).
[CrossRef]

de Vries, M.

V. Arya, M. de Vries, K. A. Murphy, A. Wang, and R. O. Claus, Opt. Fiber Technol. 1, 380 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Duan, Y.

B. Qi, G. R. Pickwell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Duplain, G.

Huang, Z.

B. Qi, G. R. Pickwell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huo, W.

B. Qi, G. R. Pickwell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jin, W.

L. B. Yuan, L. M. Zhou, W. Jin, and C. C. Chan, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 4648 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kozikowski, C.

W. Pulliam, P. Russler, R. Mlcak, K. Murphy, and C. Kozikowski, Proc. SPIE 4202, 21 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, T.

Marcuse, D.

May, R. G.

B. Qi, G. R. Pickwell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Li, R. G. May, A. Wang, and R. O. Claus, Appl. Opt. 36, 8858 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mettler, S. C.

C. M. Miller, S. C. Mettler, and I. A. White, Optical Fiber Splices and Connectors: Theory and Methods (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1986).

Miller, C. M.

C. M. Miller, S. C. Mettler, and I. A. White, Optical Fiber Splices and Connectors: Theory and Methods (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1986).

Mlcak, R.

W. Pulliam, P. Russler, R. Mlcak, K. Murphy, and C. Kozikowski, Proc. SPIE 4202, 21 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, K.

W. Pulliam, P. Russler, R. Mlcak, K. Murphy, and C. Kozikowski, Proc. SPIE 4202, 21 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, K. A.

V. Bhatia, M. B. Sen, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, Electron. Lett. 32, 247 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. Arya, M. de Vries, K. A. Murphy, A. Wang, and R. O. Claus, Opt. Fiber Technol. 1, 380 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Peng, W.

B. Qi, G. R. Pickwell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pickwell, G. R.

B. Qi, G. R. Pickwell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Poon, T.-C.

P. P. Banerjee and T.-C. Poon, Principles of Applied Optics (Irwin, Homewood, Ill., 1991).

Pulliam, W.

W. Pulliam, P. Russler, R. Mlcak, K. Murphy, and C. Kozikowski, Proc. SPIE 4202, 21 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Qi, B.

B. Qi, G. R. Pickwell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Russler, P.

W. Pulliam, P. Russler, R. Mlcak, K. Murphy, and C. Kozikowski, Proc. SPIE 4202, 21 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sen, M. B.

V. Bhatia, M. B. Sen, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, Electron. Lett. 32, 247 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A.

B. Qi, G. R. Pickwell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Li, R. G. May, A. Wang, and R. O. Claus, Appl. Opt. 36, 8858 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Arya, M. de Vries, K. A. Murphy, A. Wang, and R. O. Claus, Opt. Fiber Technol. 1, 380 (1995).
[CrossRef]

White, I. A.

C. M. Miller, S. C. Mettler, and I. A. White, Optical Fiber Splices and Connectors: Theory and Methods (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1986).

Xiao, H.

B. Qi, G. R. Pickwell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

B. Qi, G. R. Pickwell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, L. B.

L. B. Yuan, L. M. Zhou, W. Jin, and C. C. Chan, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 4648 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, P.

B. Qi, G. R. Pickwell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L. M.

L. B. Yuan, L. M. Zhou, W. Jin, and C. C. Chan, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 4648 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (1)

V. Bhatia, M. B. Sen, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, Electron. Lett. 32, 247 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

A. Bjarklev, J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 341 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

B. Qi, G. R. Pickwell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

V. Arya, M. de Vries, K. A. Murphy, A. Wang, and R. O. Claus, Opt. Fiber Technol. 1, 380 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

W. Pulliam, P. Russler, R. Mlcak, K. Murphy, and C. Kozikowski, Proc. SPIE 4202, 21 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

L. B. Yuan, L. M. Zhou, W. Jin, and C. C. Chan, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 4648 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

P. P. Banerjee and T.-C. Poon, Principles of Applied Optics (Irwin, Homewood, Ill., 1991).

C. M. Miller, S. C. Mettler, and I. A. White, Optical Fiber Splices and Connectors: Theory and Methods (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1986).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a SMF EFPI sensor system. Inset, schematic of a SMF EFPI sensor head.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated coupling phase shift θ as a function of air gap d at wavelength λ=1550 nm. The parameters used for the SMF were a=4.5 µm, n1=1.448, and n2=1.444.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Construction of the SMF EFPI sensor used in the test.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Result of evaluation of the sensor’s air gap at 10 air-gap levels.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Enlarged view of the evaluation result for the third air-gap level measurement and its linear fitting as the measurement number.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E1=ϕe1=E exp-r2/w02,
ϕe2=Ejk0w02/2qexp-jk0r2/2q,
E2=ηϕe1 expjk02d+jπ=ηEϕe1 expj4πd/λ+jπ+jθ,
η=ηexpjθ=R1ϕe1*ϕe2dxdyR1ϕe1*ϕe1dxdyR1ϕe2*ϕe2dxdy1/2.
Iλ,d=E1+E2E1+E2*I0λR1+ηcos4πd/λ+π+θ,
Inormλ,d=A+B cos4πd/λ+π+θ,
Inormλ,d=A+B cos4πd/λ+π+θC/λ+D
S=1/λIλ,d-Inormλ,d2d1/λ.

Metrics