Abstract

We describe a self-referenced optical frequency comb generator based on an octave-spanning, prismless Ti:sapphire laser. Dispersion compensation is provided by novel double-chirped mirror pairs and BaF2 wedges. Current versions operate at 80 and 150 MHz. The compact prismless design allows system scaling to a gigahertz repetition rate. Its carrier-envelope beat note is intrinsically stable with a signal-to-noise ratio of 30 dB in a 100-kHz bandwidth. The octave is reached at 25 dB below the average power level. The in-loop accumulated phase error is 1.4 rad (20 mHz to 1 MHz). The technique has the advantages of simplicity and stability compared with previous designs.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Haensch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Bartels, T. Dekorsy, and H. Kurz, Opt. Lett. 24, 996 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. X. Kärtner, U. Morgner, T. R. Schilbli, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 882 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. R. Schibli, O. Kuzucu, J. Kim, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, F. X. Kärtner, V. Scheuer, and G. Angelow, IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 990 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kaertner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5462 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. Ell, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, Opt. Lett. 26, 373 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. M. Fortier, D. J. Jones, and S. T. Cundiff, Opt. Lett. 28, 2198 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Bartels and H. Kurz, Opt. Lett. 27, 1839 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. T. Cundiff, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3749 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (2)

T. R. Schibli, O. Kuzucu, J. Kim, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, F. X. Kärtner, V. Scheuer, and G. Angelow, IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 990 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Fortier, D. J. Jones, and S. T. Cundiff, Opt. Lett. 28, 2198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (4)

2000 (2)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Haensch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

A. Bartels, T. Dekorsy, and H. Kurz, Opt. Lett. 24, 996 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Angelow, G.

Bartels, A.

Cundiff, S. T.

T. M. Fortier, D. J. Jones, and S. T. Cundiff, Opt. Lett. 28, 2198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Cundiff, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3749 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dekorsy, T.

Diddams, S. A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ell, R.

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kaertner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5462 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ell, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, Opt. Lett. 26, 373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fortier, T. M.

Fujimoto, J. G.

T. R. Schibli, O. Kuzucu, J. Kim, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, F. X. Kärtner, V. Scheuer, and G. Angelow, IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 990 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. X. Kärtner, U. Morgner, T. R. Schilbli, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 882 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Ell, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, Opt. Lett. 26, 373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kaertner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5462 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haensch, T. W.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Haensch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

S. T. Cundiff, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3749 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T.

T. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kaertner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5462 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Haensch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

T. R. Schibli, O. Kuzucu, J. Kim, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, F. X. Kärtner, V. Scheuer, and G. Angelow, IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 990 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. X. Kärtner, U. Morgner, T. R. Schilbli, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 882 (2001).
[CrossRef]

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kaertner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5462 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ell, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, Opt. Lett. 26, 373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. J.

T. M. Fortier, D. J. Jones, and S. T. Cundiff, Opt. Lett. 28, 2198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaertner, F. X.

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kaertner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5462 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kärtner, F. X.

Kim, J.

T. R. Schibli, O. Kuzucu, J. Kim, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, F. X. Kärtner, V. Scheuer, and G. Angelow, IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 990 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Haensch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

Kuzucu, O.

T. R. Schibli, O. Kuzucu, J. Kim, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, F. X. Kärtner, V. Scheuer, and G. Angelow, IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 990 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Metzler, G.

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kaertner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5462 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgner, U.

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reichert, J.

T. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Russel, P. St. J.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Haensch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Scheuer, V.

Schibli, T. R.

T. R. Schibli, O. Kuzucu, J. Kim, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, F. X. Kärtner, V. Scheuer, and G. Angelow, IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 990 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kaertner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5462 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schilbli, T. R.

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tschudi, T.

Udem, T.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Haensch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W. J.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Haensch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, J.

S. T. Cundiff, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3749 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. R. Schibli, O. Kuzucu, J. Kim, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, F. X. Kärtner, V. Scheuer, and G. Angelow, IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 990 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Haensch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kaertner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5462 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

S. T. Cundiff, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3749 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of an octave-spanning prismless laser. Gray and black mirrors are type I and II DCMs, respectively. The BaF2 wedges are used for fine tuning the dispersion. (b) Reflectivity of the type I DCMs with the pump window shown as a thick solid curve. The group-delay design is given by the thick dashed–dotted curve. The individual group delays of type I and II DCMs are shown as thin curves and their averages as a dashed curve, which is almost identical to the design goal over the wavelength range of interest from 650 to 1200 nm. The measured group delay, by use of white-light interferometry, is shown as the thick solid curve from 600 to 1100 nm. Beyond 1100 nm, the sensitivity of the Si detector limited the measurement.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured output spectrum for lasers with (a) 80-MHz repetition rate and (b) 150-MHz repetition rate. In both cases the octave is reached at 25 dB below the average power level. The average mode-locked power is 90 mW for both lasers. Also shown (dotted curves) are the respective OC transmission curves for (a) the ZnSe/MgF2 Bragg stack and (b) a broadband SiO2/TiO2 stack. Both have 1% transmission at 800 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Setup for fceo detection and lock (see text). SM, silver mirror; DM, dichroic mirror; LO, local oscilator. (b) Measured carrier-envelope beat signal from the 80-MHz laser with 10- and 100-kHz resolution bandwidths (RBW).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral densities of the phase error signal at the output of the digital phase detector for the fceo lock (dashed curve) and free-running fceo (solid curve), with the scale on the left. Spectral density of the pump noise recorded in the absence of fceo feedback (dashed–dotted curve) and system noise floor (dotted curve), with the scale on the right. The major contribution to fceo noise is due to pump noise. PSD, phase error spectral density.

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