Abstract

Laminar optical tomography (LOT) is a new technique that combines the advantages of diffuse optical tomography image reconstruction and a microscopy-based setup to allow noncontact imaging with 100200µm resolution effective over depths of 0–2.5 mm. LOT is being developed primarily for multispectral imaging of rat cortex, for which resolving functional dynamics in various layers of the brain’s cortex (to depths of 1500 µm) is of increasing interest to neurophysiologists. System design and image reconstruction techniques are described, along with simulation and phantom results that demonstrate the characteristics and limitations of system accuracy and resolution.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2003 (2)

R. Uma Maheswari, H. Takaoka, H. Kadono, R. Honma, and M. Tanifuji, J. Neurosci. Meth. 124, 83 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Petersen, A. Grinvald, and B. Sakmann, J. Neurosci. 23, 1298 (2003).
[PubMed]

2002 (3)

A. C. Silva and A. P. Koretsky, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 15,182 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Ba, M. Guiou, N. Pouratian, A. Muthialu, D. E. Rex, A. F. Cannestra, J. W. Y. Chen, and A. W. Toga, J. Neurophysiol. 88, 2726 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Bolay, U. Reuter, A. Dunn, D. Boas, and M. Moskowitz, Nature Med. 8, 136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

M. Jones, J. Berwick, D. Johnston, and J. Mayhew, Neuroimage 13, 1002 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, Q. Zhou, F. Beck, P. E. Tornambe, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and A. W. Dreher, Int. Ophthalmol. 23, 245 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

1997 (1)

M. Fabricius, N. Akgören, U. Dirnagl, and M. Lauritzen, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 17, 1326 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akgören, N.

M. Fabricius, N. Akgören, U. Dirnagl, and M. Lauritzen, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 17, 1326 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ba, A. M.

A. M. Ba, M. Guiou, N. Pouratian, A. Muthialu, D. E. Rex, A. F. Cannestra, J. W. Y. Chen, and A. W. Toga, J. Neurophysiol. 88, 2726 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beck, F.

A. E. Elsner, Q. Zhou, F. Beck, P. E. Tornambe, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and A. W. Dreher, Int. Ophthalmol. 23, 245 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Berwick, J.

M. Jones, J. Berwick, D. Johnston, and J. Mayhew, Neuroimage 13, 1002 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bevilacqua, F.

F. Bevilacqua, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, and B. J. Tromberg, in Biomedical Topical Meetings, Vol. 71 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 677–679.

Boas, D.

H. Bolay, U. Reuter, A. Dunn, D. Boas, and M. Moskowitz, Nature Med. 8, 136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Dunn and D. Boas, Opt. Lett. 25, 1777 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bolay, H.

H. Bolay, U. Reuter, A. Dunn, D. Boas, and M. Moskowitz, Nature Med. 8, 136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Burns, S. A.

A. E. Elsner, Q. Zhou, F. Beck, P. E. Tornambe, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and A. W. Dreher, Int. Ophthalmol. 23, 245 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cannestra, A. F.

A. M. Ba, M. Guiou, N. Pouratian, A. Muthialu, D. E. Rex, A. F. Cannestra, J. W. Y. Chen, and A. W. Toga, J. Neurophysiol. 88, 2726 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J. W. Y.

A. M. Ba, M. Guiou, N. Pouratian, A. Muthialu, D. E. Rex, A. F. Cannestra, J. W. Y. Chen, and A. W. Toga, J. Neurophysiol. 88, 2726 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cuccia, D. J.

F. Bevilacqua, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, and B. J. Tromberg, in Biomedical Topical Meetings, Vol. 71 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 677–679.

Dirnagl, U.

M. Fabricius, N. Akgören, U. Dirnagl, and M. Lauritzen, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 17, 1326 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dreher, A. W.

A. E. Elsner, Q. Zhou, F. Beck, P. E. Tornambe, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and A. W. Dreher, Int. Ophthalmol. 23, 245 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, A.

H. Bolay, U. Reuter, A. Dunn, D. Boas, and M. Moskowitz, Nature Med. 8, 136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Dunn and D. Boas, Opt. Lett. 25, 1777 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Durkin, A. J.

F. Bevilacqua, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, and B. J. Tromberg, in Biomedical Topical Meetings, Vol. 71 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 677–679.

Elsner, A. E.

A. E. Elsner, Q. Zhou, F. Beck, P. E. Tornambe, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and A. W. Dreher, Int. Ophthalmol. 23, 245 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fabricius, M.

M. Fabricius, N. Akgören, U. Dirnagl, and M. Lauritzen, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 17, 1326 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fantini, S.

Filiaci, M. E.

Franceschini, M. A.

Gratton, E.

Grinvald, A.

C. C. Petersen, A. Grinvald, and B. Sakmann, J. Neurosci. 23, 1298 (2003).
[PubMed]

Guiou, M.

A. M. Ba, M. Guiou, N. Pouratian, A. Muthialu, D. E. Rex, A. F. Cannestra, J. W. Y. Chen, and A. W. Toga, J. Neurophysiol. 88, 2726 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Honma, R.

R. Uma Maheswari, H. Takaoka, H. Kadono, R. Honma, and M. Tanifuji, J. Neurosci. Meth. 124, 83 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, D.

M. Jones, J. Berwick, D. Johnston, and J. Mayhew, Neuroimage 13, 1002 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, M.

M. Jones, J. Berwick, D. Johnston, and J. Mayhew, Neuroimage 13, 1002 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kadono, H.

R. Uma Maheswari, H. Takaoka, H. Kadono, R. Honma, and M. Tanifuji, J. Neurosci. Meth. 124, 83 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koretsky, A. P.

A. C. Silva and A. P. Koretsky, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 15,182 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lauritzen, M.

M. Fabricius, N. Akgören, U. Dirnagl, and M. Lauritzen, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 17, 1326 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mayhew, J.

M. Jones, J. Berwick, D. Johnston, and J. Mayhew, Neuroimage 13, 1002 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moskowitz, M.

H. Bolay, U. Reuter, A. Dunn, D. Boas, and M. Moskowitz, Nature Med. 8, 136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Muthialu, A.

A. M. Ba, M. Guiou, N. Pouratian, A. Muthialu, D. E. Rex, A. F. Cannestra, J. W. Y. Chen, and A. W. Toga, J. Neurophysiol. 88, 2726 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petersen, C. C.

C. C. Petersen, A. Grinvald, and B. Sakmann, J. Neurosci. 23, 1298 (2003).
[PubMed]

Pouratian, N.

A. M. Ba, M. Guiou, N. Pouratian, A. Muthialu, D. E. Rex, A. F. Cannestra, J. W. Y. Chen, and A. W. Toga, J. Neurophysiol. 88, 2726 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reuter, U.

H. Bolay, U. Reuter, A. Dunn, D. Boas, and M. Moskowitz, Nature Med. 8, 136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rex, D. E.

A. M. Ba, M. Guiou, N. Pouratian, A. Muthialu, D. E. Rex, A. F. Cannestra, J. W. Y. Chen, and A. W. Toga, J. Neurophysiol. 88, 2726 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakmann, B.

C. C. Petersen, A. Grinvald, and B. Sakmann, J. Neurosci. 23, 1298 (2003).
[PubMed]

Silva, A. C.

A. C. Silva and A. P. Koretsky, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 15,182 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Takaoka, H.

R. Uma Maheswari, H. Takaoka, H. Kadono, R. Honma, and M. Tanifuji, J. Neurosci. Meth. 124, 83 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tanifuji, M.

R. Uma Maheswari, H. Takaoka, H. Kadono, R. Honma, and M. Tanifuji, J. Neurosci. Meth. 124, 83 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Toga, A. W.

A. M. Ba, M. Guiou, N. Pouratian, A. Muthialu, D. E. Rex, A. F. Cannestra, J. W. Y. Chen, and A. W. Toga, J. Neurophysiol. 88, 2726 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tornambe, P. E.

A. E. Elsner, Q. Zhou, F. Beck, P. E. Tornambe, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and A. W. Dreher, Int. Ophthalmol. 23, 245 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Toronov, V.

Tromberg, B. J.

F. Bevilacqua, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, and B. J. Tromberg, in Biomedical Topical Meetings, Vol. 71 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 677–679.

Uma Maheswari, R.

R. Uma Maheswari, H. Takaoka, H. Kadono, R. Honma, and M. Tanifuji, J. Neurosci. Meth. 124, 83 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weiter, J. J.

A. E. Elsner, Q. Zhou, F. Beck, P. E. Tornambe, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and A. W. Dreher, Int. Ophthalmol. 23, 245 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Q.

A. E. Elsner, Q. Zhou, F. Beck, P. E. Tornambe, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and A. W. Dreher, Int. Ophthalmol. 23, 245 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Int. Ophthalmol. (1)

A. E. Elsner, Q. Zhou, F. Beck, P. E. Tornambe, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and A. W. Dreher, Int. Ophthalmol. 23, 245 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1)

M. Fabricius, N. Akgören, U. Dirnagl, and M. Lauritzen, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 17, 1326 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurophysiol. (1)

A. M. Ba, M. Guiou, N. Pouratian, A. Muthialu, D. E. Rex, A. F. Cannestra, J. W. Y. Chen, and A. W. Toga, J. Neurophysiol. 88, 2726 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurosci. (1)

C. C. Petersen, A. Grinvald, and B. Sakmann, J. Neurosci. 23, 1298 (2003).
[PubMed]

J. Neurosci. Meth. (1)

R. Uma Maheswari, H. Takaoka, H. Kadono, R. Honma, and M. Tanifuji, J. Neurosci. Meth. 124, 83 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature Med. (1)

H. Bolay, U. Reuter, A. Dunn, D. Boas, and M. Moskowitz, Nature Med. 8, 136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Neuroimage (1)

M. Jones, J. Berwick, D. Johnston, and J. Mayhew, Neuroimage 13, 1002 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

A. C. Silva and A. P. Koretsky, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 15,182 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

F. Bevilacqua, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, and B. J. Tromberg, in Biomedical Topical Meetings, Vol. 71 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 677–679.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

LOT system design. Galvanometer mirrors steer a focused spot over an adjustable (e.g., 3 mm×3 mm) area. Multiple detectors acquire data from successive distances away from the focused spot. The total area sampled is typically 3 mm×4.5 mm, representing the area raster-scanned by the source, and the imaged y-displaced detectors.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Center and right, high resolution 100×100 raw images from the LOT system for two source–detector separations on rat cortex through thinned-skull at 532 nm. The 0-mm image shows the reflectance of the skull surface, whereas the 1.13-mm image isolates features of the cortical vasculature. Left, simultaneously acquired CCD image of the same region with diffuse 580-nm illumination.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reconstructed images of a human hair (100µm diameter) positioned at 0-, 400-, 800-, and 1100µm depths ±50 µm in Intralipid and bovine hemoglobin. Δμa=0.075 mm-1 isosurfaces shown in an xz view.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Left, z-direction point-spread functions for a 0.1mm-1 Δμa perturbation at various depths α=10-10. Right, z-centroid positions of each perturbation as a function of its depth for various values of α.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δμa=JTJJT+λI-1ΔML0M0,
Δμa=JTJJT+λI-1JΔμ˜a,

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