Abstract

Linear optical coherence tomography (LOCT) systems are a simple and robust alternative to time-domain optical coherence tomography systems, but a detector with approximately 104 pixels is needed for an imaging depth of 2 mm. We present a new system for LOCT with a special mask attached to the image sensor. The mask essentially performs a downconversion of the spatial frequencies by multiplication with a second spatial frequency. This reduces the fringe frequency of the optical coherence tomography signal so that the signal can be sampled with fewer pixels.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Gilerson, I. Zeylikovich, and R. Alfano, Opt. Lett. 23, 1797 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Hauger, M. Wörz, and T. Hellmuth, Appl. Opt. 42, 3896 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Nannini, P. Nerin, P. Benech, and I. Schanen-Duport, Opt. Eng. 42, 75 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Willemin, N. Blanc, G. K. Lang, S. Lauxtermann, P. Schwider, P. Seitz, and M. Wäny, Opt. Laser Eng. 36, 185 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (2)

C. Hauger, M. Wörz, and T. Hellmuth, Appl. Opt. 42, 3896 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nannini, P. Nerin, P. Benech, and I. Schanen-Duport, Opt. Eng. 42, 75 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Willemin, N. Blanc, G. K. Lang, S. Lauxtermann, P. Schwider, P. Seitz, and M. Wäny, Opt. Laser Eng. 36, 185 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alfano, R.

Benech, P.

M. Nannini, P. Nerin, P. Benech, and I. Schanen-Duport, Opt. Eng. 42, 75 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Blanc, N.

M. Willemin, N. Blanc, G. K. Lang, S. Lauxtermann, P. Schwider, P. Seitz, and M. Wäny, Opt. Laser Eng. 36, 185 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilerson, A.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hauger, C.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hellmuth, T.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lang, G. K.

M. Willemin, N. Blanc, G. K. Lang, S. Lauxtermann, P. Schwider, P. Seitz, and M. Wäny, Opt. Laser Eng. 36, 185 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lauxtermann, S.

M. Willemin, N. Blanc, G. K. Lang, S. Lauxtermann, P. Schwider, P. Seitz, and M. Wäny, Opt. Laser Eng. 36, 185 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nannini, M.

M. Nannini, P. Nerin, P. Benech, and I. Schanen-Duport, Opt. Eng. 42, 75 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nerin, P.

M. Nannini, P. Nerin, P. Benech, and I. Schanen-Duport, Opt. Eng. 42, 75 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schanen-Duport, I.

M. Nannini, P. Nerin, P. Benech, and I. Schanen-Duport, Opt. Eng. 42, 75 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwider, P.

M. Willemin, N. Blanc, G. K. Lang, S. Lauxtermann, P. Schwider, P. Seitz, and M. Wäny, Opt. Laser Eng. 36, 185 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Seitz, P.

M. Willemin, N. Blanc, G. K. Lang, S. Lauxtermann, P. Schwider, P. Seitz, and M. Wäny, Opt. Laser Eng. 36, 185 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wäny, M.

M. Willemin, N. Blanc, G. K. Lang, S. Lauxtermann, P. Schwider, P. Seitz, and M. Wäny, Opt. Laser Eng. 36, 185 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Willemin, M.

M. Willemin, N. Blanc, G. K. Lang, S. Lauxtermann, P. Schwider, P. Seitz, and M. Wäny, Opt. Laser Eng. 36, 185 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wörz, M.

Zeylikovich, I.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. Nannini, P. Nerin, P. Benech, and I. Schanen-Duport, Opt. Eng. 42, 75 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Eng. (1)

M. Willemin, N. Blanc, G. K. Lang, S. Lauxtermann, P. Schwider, P. Seitz, and M. Wäny, Opt. Laser Eng. 36, 185 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of the LOCT: Probe and reference intensity interfere as planar waves on the surface of an image sensor.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured MTF of the sensor and calculated MTF with attached mask.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the experimental setup. SLD, superluminescent diode.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Light intensity measured by the sensor with a coverslip as a probe. Inset, enlargement of the second modulation. Because of the downconversion effect, there are only three fringes in the FWHM of the light source.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

A-scan signal of Fig. 4 after bandpass filtering and demodulation on a logarithmic scale. The third peak at pixel 650 is caused by light reflected back and forth within the coverslip.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

B-scan image of the threads of a screw. The image dimensions are 940 µm×2 mm at a lateral resolution of 10 µm. The image sensor was used at a frame rate of 200 Hz.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

IFx=Ip+IR+2IPIR1/2sinκ1xγx.
Tx=12+12sinκMx,
IMx=IFxTx.
FOUIMx=FOUIFxFOUTx.

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