Abstract

Waveguide terahertz time-domain spectroscopy is demonstrated to have the sensitivity to characterize nanometer-thick water layers on the surfaces of a parallel-plate metal waveguide. The measured far-infrared absorption and index of refraction of the 20-nm water layers are in reasonable self-consistent agreement with those of bulk water.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. Gallot, S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 851 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4449 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, Opt. Lett. 26, 846 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, IEEE Microwave Wire Components Lett. 11, 444 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Coleman and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3656 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Thrane, R. H. Jacobsen, P. U. Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, Chem. Phys. Lett. 240, 330 (1995).
  7. J. T. Kindt and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 10,373 (1996).
  8. J.-M. Dai and D. Grischkowsky, unpublished measurement of bulk water in our laboratory.
  9. F. Franks, Water: a Comprehensive Treatise, Vol. 5Water in Disperse Systems (Plenum, New York, N.Y., 1975).
  10. J. Zhang and D. Grischkowsky, Opt. Lett. 29, 1031 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. van Exter, Ch. Fattinger, and D. Grischkowsky, Opt. Lett. 14, 1128 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Decher, Science 277, 1232 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. Aliev, M. Correa-Duarte, A. Mamedov, J. W. Ostrander, M. Giersig, L. Liz-Marzan, and N. Kotov, Adv. Mater. 11, 1006 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2004

2003

S. Coleman and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3656 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, Opt. Lett. 26, 846 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, IEEE Microwave Wire Components Lett. 11, 444 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

1999

F. Aliev, M. Correa-Duarte, A. Mamedov, J. W. Ostrander, M. Giersig, L. Liz-Marzan, and N. Kotov, Adv. Mater. 11, 1006 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

G. Decher, Science 277, 1232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

J. T. Kindt and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 10,373 (1996).

1995

L. Thrane, R. H. Jacobsen, P. U. Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, Chem. Phys. Lett. 240, 330 (1995).

1989

Aliev, F.

F. Aliev, M. Correa-Duarte, A. Mamedov, J. W. Ostrander, M. Giersig, L. Liz-Marzan, and N. Kotov, Adv. Mater. 11, 1006 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Coleman, S.

S. Coleman and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3656 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Correa-Duarte, M.

F. Aliev, M. Correa-Duarte, A. Mamedov, J. W. Ostrander, M. Giersig, L. Liz-Marzan, and N. Kotov, Adv. Mater. 11, 1006 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dai, J.-M.

J.-M. Dai and D. Grischkowsky, unpublished measurement of bulk water in our laboratory.

Decher, G.

G. Decher, Science 277, 1232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fattinger, Ch.

Franks, F.

F. Franks, Water: a Comprehensive Treatise, Vol. 5Water in Disperse Systems (Plenum, New York, N.Y., 1975).

Gallot, G.

Giersig, M.

F. Aliev, M. Correa-Duarte, A. Mamedov, J. W. Ostrander, M. Giersig, L. Liz-Marzan, and N. Kotov, Adv. Mater. 11, 1006 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

J. Zhang and D. Grischkowsky, Opt. Lett. 29, 1031 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Coleman and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3656 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, Opt. Lett. 26, 846 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, IEEE Microwave Wire Components Lett. 11, 444 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4449 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Gallot, S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 851 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. van Exter, Ch. Fattinger, and D. Grischkowsky, Opt. Lett. 14, 1128 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Dai and D. Grischkowsky, unpublished measurement of bulk water in our laboratory.

Jacobsen, R. H.

L. Thrane, R. H. Jacobsen, P. U. Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, Chem. Phys. Lett. 240, 330 (1995).

Jamison, S. P.

Jepsen, P. U.

L. Thrane, R. H. Jacobsen, P. U. Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, Chem. Phys. Lett. 240, 330 (1995).

Keiding, S. R.

L. Thrane, R. H. Jacobsen, P. U. Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, Chem. Phys. Lett. 240, 330 (1995).

Kindt, J. T.

J. T. Kindt and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 10,373 (1996).

Kotov, N.

F. Aliev, M. Correa-Duarte, A. Mamedov, J. W. Ostrander, M. Giersig, L. Liz-Marzan, and N. Kotov, Adv. Mater. 11, 1006 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liz-Marzan, L.

F. Aliev, M. Correa-Duarte, A. Mamedov, J. W. Ostrander, M. Giersig, L. Liz-Marzan, and N. Kotov, Adv. Mater. 11, 1006 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mamedov, A.

F. Aliev, M. Correa-Duarte, A. Mamedov, J. W. Ostrander, M. Giersig, L. Liz-Marzan, and N. Kotov, Adv. Mater. 11, 1006 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McGowan, R. W.

Mendis, R.

R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, Opt. Lett. 26, 846 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, IEEE Microwave Wire Components Lett. 11, 444 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4449 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ostrander, J. W.

F. Aliev, M. Correa-Duarte, A. Mamedov, J. W. Ostrander, M. Giersig, L. Liz-Marzan, and N. Kotov, Adv. Mater. 11, 1006 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmuttenmaer, C. A.

J. T. Kindt and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 10,373 (1996).

Thrane, L.

L. Thrane, R. H. Jacobsen, P. U. Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, Chem. Phys. Lett. 240, 330 (1995).

van Exter, M.

Zhang, J.

Adv. Mater.

F. Aliev, M. Correa-Duarte, A. Mamedov, J. W. Ostrander, M. Giersig, L. Liz-Marzan, and N. Kotov, Adv. Mater. 11, 1006 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Coleman and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3656 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

L. Thrane, R. H. Jacobsen, P. U. Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, Chem. Phys. Lett. 240, 330 (1995).

IEEE Microwave Wire Components Lett.

R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, IEEE Microwave Wire Components Lett. 11, 444 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4449 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. Chem.

J. T. Kindt and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 10,373 (1996).

Opt. Lett.

Science

G. Decher, Science 277, 1232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other

J.-M. Dai and D. Grischkowsky, unpublished measurement of bulk water in our laboratory.

F. Franks, Water: a Comprehensive Treatise, Vol. 5Water in Disperse Systems (Plenum, New York, N.Y., 1975).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measured reference and signal pulses and (b) their respective spectra. The reference pulse has been shifted for clarity. Top curves in both (a) and (b): reference, 8.10-Torr water vapor at 9.0 °C. Bottom curves: sample, 8.68-Torr water vapor at 9.0 °C. The inset of (a), enlargement of the transmitted pulses.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Index of refraction and (b) power absorption coefficient obtained with Δl=20 nm. Dashed lines, results for bulk water.

Equations (2)

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argAlωArefω=2π1-1/lωbλ0LΔl,
αlω=-lnAlω/Arefωbnl3LΔl.

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