Abstract

We present a device to facilitate single-photon detection at communication wavelengths based on continuous-wave sum-frequency generation with an upconversion efficiency exceeding 90%. Sum-frequency generation in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide is used to upconvert signal photons to the near infrared, where detection can be performed efficiently by use of silicon avalanche photodiodes.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Karlsson, M. Bourennane, G. Ribordy, H. Zbinden, J. Brendel, J. Rarity, and P. Tapster, IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. 15, 34 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Bourennane, A. Karlsson, J. P. Ciscar, and M. Mathés, J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1983 (2001).
  3. C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 557 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. Ribordy, J.-D. Gautier, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, Appl. Opt. 37, 2272 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. G. Kwiat, A. M. Steinberg, R. Y. Chiao, P. H. Eberhard, and M. D. Petroff, Appl. Opt. 33, 1844 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. A. Albota and F. N. C. Wong, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 88 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), paper QThPDB11.
  7. K. R. Parameswaran, M. Fujimura, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 656 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Suhara, H. Ishizuki, M. Fujimura, and H. Nishihara, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1027 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Jackel and J. Johnson, Electron. Lett. 27, 1360 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Korkishko, V. Fedorov, T. Morozova, F. Caccavale, F. Gonella, and F. Segato, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 1823 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. R. Parameswaran, R. K. Route, J. R. Kurz, R. V. Roussev, M. M. Fejer, and M. Fujimura, Opt. Lett. 27, 179 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Roussev, A. Sridharan, K. Urbanek, R. Byer, and M. Fejer, in 2003 IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 334–335.
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. R. Parameswaran, J. R. Kurz, R. V. Roussev, and M. M. Fejer, Opt. Lett. 27, 43 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Roussev, X. Xie, K. Parameswaran, M. Fejer, and J. Tian, in 2003 IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 338–339.
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Regener and W. Sohler, Appl. Phys. B 36, 143 (1985).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

M. Bourennane, A. Karlsson, J. P. Ciscar, and M. Mathés, J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1983 (2001).

2000 (1)

K. R. Parameswaran, M. Fujimura, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 656 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

T. Suhara, H. Ishizuki, M. Fujimura, and H. Nishihara, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1027 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Karlsson, M. Bourennane, G. Ribordy, H. Zbinden, J. Brendel, J. Rarity, and P. Tapster, IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. 15, 34 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

Y. Korkishko, V. Fedorov, T. Morozova, F. Caccavale, F. Gonella, and F. Segato, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 1823 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Ribordy, J.-D. Gautier, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, Appl. Opt. 37, 2272 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 557 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

J. Jackel and J. Johnson, Electron. Lett. 27, 1360 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

R. Regener and W. Sohler, Appl. Phys. B 36, 143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Albota, M. A.

M. A. Albota and F. N. C. Wong, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 88 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), paper QThPDB11.

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 557 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bourennane, M.

M. Bourennane, A. Karlsson, J. P. Ciscar, and M. Mathés, J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1983 (2001).

A. Karlsson, M. Bourennane, G. Ribordy, H. Zbinden, J. Brendel, J. Rarity, and P. Tapster, IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. 15, 34 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brassard, G.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 557 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brendel, J.

A. Karlsson, M. Bourennane, G. Ribordy, H. Zbinden, J. Brendel, J. Rarity, and P. Tapster, IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. 15, 34 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R.

R. Roussev, A. Sridharan, K. Urbanek, R. Byer, and M. Fejer, in 2003 IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 334–335.
[CrossRef]

Caccavale, F.

Y. Korkishko, V. Fedorov, T. Morozova, F. Caccavale, F. Gonella, and F. Segato, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 1823 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chiao, R. Y.

Chou, M. H.

K. R. Parameswaran, M. Fujimura, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 656 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ciscar, J. P.

M. Bourennane, A. Karlsson, J. P. Ciscar, and M. Mathés, J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1983 (2001).

Eberhard, P. H.

Fedorov, V.

Y. Korkishko, V. Fedorov, T. Morozova, F. Caccavale, F. Gonella, and F. Segato, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 1823 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M.

R. Roussev, X. Xie, K. Parameswaran, M. Fejer, and J. Tian, in 2003 IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 338–339.
[CrossRef]

R. Roussev, A. Sridharan, K. Urbanek, R. Byer, and M. Fejer, in 2003 IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 334–335.
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

Fujimura, M.

K. R. Parameswaran, R. K. Route, J. R. Kurz, R. V. Roussev, M. M. Fejer, and M. Fujimura, Opt. Lett. 27, 179 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Parameswaran, M. Fujimura, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 656 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Suhara, H. Ishizuki, M. Fujimura, and H. Nishihara, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1027 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gautier, J.-D.

Gisin, N.

Gonella, F.

Y. Korkishko, V. Fedorov, T. Morozova, F. Caccavale, F. Gonella, and F. Segato, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 1823 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ishizuki, H.

T. Suhara, H. Ishizuki, M. Fujimura, and H. Nishihara, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1027 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jackel, J.

J. Jackel and J. Johnson, Electron. Lett. 27, 1360 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, J.

J. Jackel and J. Johnson, Electron. Lett. 27, 1360 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, A.

M. Bourennane, A. Karlsson, J. P. Ciscar, and M. Mathés, J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1983 (2001).

A. Karlsson, M. Bourennane, G. Ribordy, H. Zbinden, J. Brendel, J. Rarity, and P. Tapster, IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. 15, 34 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Korkishko, Y.

Y. Korkishko, V. Fedorov, T. Morozova, F. Caccavale, F. Gonella, and F. Segato, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 1823 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, J. R.

Kwiat, P. G.

Mathés, M.

M. Bourennane, A. Karlsson, J. P. Ciscar, and M. Mathés, J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1983 (2001).

Mermin, N. D.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 557 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morozova, T.

Y. Korkishko, V. Fedorov, T. Morozova, F. Caccavale, F. Gonella, and F. Segato, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 1823 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nishihara, H.

T. Suhara, H. Ishizuki, M. Fujimura, and H. Nishihara, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1027 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Parameswaran, K.

R. Roussev, X. Xie, K. Parameswaran, M. Fejer, and J. Tian, in 2003 IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 338–339.
[CrossRef]

Parameswaran, K. R.

Petroff, M. D.

Rarity, J.

A. Karlsson, M. Bourennane, G. Ribordy, H. Zbinden, J. Brendel, J. Rarity, and P. Tapster, IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. 15, 34 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Regener, R.

R. Regener and W. Sohler, Appl. Phys. B 36, 143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ribordy, G.

A. Karlsson, M. Bourennane, G. Ribordy, H. Zbinden, J. Brendel, J. Rarity, and P. Tapster, IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. 15, 34 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Ribordy, J.-D. Gautier, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, Appl. Opt. 37, 2272 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Roussev, R.

R. Roussev, X. Xie, K. Parameswaran, M. Fejer, and J. Tian, in 2003 IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 338–339.
[CrossRef]

R. Roussev, A. Sridharan, K. Urbanek, R. Byer, and M. Fejer, in 2003 IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 334–335.
[CrossRef]

Roussev, R. V.

Route, R. K.

Segato, F.

Y. Korkishko, V. Fedorov, T. Morozova, F. Caccavale, F. Gonella, and F. Segato, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 1823 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sohler, W.

R. Regener and W. Sohler, Appl. Phys. B 36, 143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sridharan, A.

R. Roussev, A. Sridharan, K. Urbanek, R. Byer, and M. Fejer, in 2003 IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 334–335.
[CrossRef]

Steinberg, A. M.

Suhara, T.

T. Suhara, H. Ishizuki, M. Fujimura, and H. Nishihara, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1027 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tapster, P.

A. Karlsson, M. Bourennane, G. Ribordy, H. Zbinden, J. Brendel, J. Rarity, and P. Tapster, IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. 15, 34 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tian, J.

R. Roussev, X. Xie, K. Parameswaran, M. Fejer, and J. Tian, in 2003 IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 338–339.
[CrossRef]

Urbanek, K.

R. Roussev, A. Sridharan, K. Urbanek, R. Byer, and M. Fejer, in 2003 IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 334–335.
[CrossRef]

Wong, F. N. C.

M. A. Albota and F. N. C. Wong, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 88 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), paper QThPDB11.

Xie, X.

R. Roussev, X. Xie, K. Parameswaran, M. Fejer, and J. Tian, in 2003 IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 338–339.
[CrossRef]

Zbinden, H.

A. Karlsson, M. Bourennane, G. Ribordy, H. Zbinden, J. Brendel, J. Rarity, and P. Tapster, IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. 15, 34 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Ribordy, J.-D. Gautier, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, Appl. Opt. 37, 2272 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. Regener and W. Sohler, Appl. Phys. B 36, 143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. Jackel and J. Johnson, Electron. Lett. 27, 1360 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. (1)

A. Karlsson, M. Bourennane, G. Ribordy, H. Zbinden, J. Brendel, J. Rarity, and P. Tapster, IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. 15, 34 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

K. R. Parameswaran, M. Fujimura, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 656 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Suhara, H. Ishizuki, M. Fujimura, and H. Nishihara, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1027 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

M. Bourennane, A. Karlsson, J. P. Ciscar, and M. Mathés, J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1983 (2001).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Y. Korkishko, V. Fedorov, T. Morozova, F. Caccavale, F. Gonella, and F. Segato, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 1823 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 557 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

M. A. Albota and F. N. C. Wong, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 88 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), paper QThPDB11.

R. Roussev, A. Sridharan, K. Urbanek, R. Byer, and M. Fejer, in 2003 IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 334–335.
[CrossRef]

R. Roussev, X. Xie, K. Parameswaran, M. Fejer, and J. Tian, in 2003 IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 338–339.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for SFG of a 1.5µm signal and a 1.3µm pump.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental and theoretical results obtained by numerical integration of coupled-mode equations (1); ηnor=330%/W cm2, α1=α2=α3=0.18 dB/cm, λsig=1.34 µm, λSFG=0.719 µm, L=4 cm, and Psig=8.42 µW.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dA1dz=-jκ1ν*A2*A3 exp-jΔβz-α12A1,
dA2dz=-jκ2ν*A1*A3 exp-jΔβz-α22A2,
dA3dz=-jκ3νA1A2 expjΔβz-α32A3,
κi=8π2deff2n1n2n3c0λi21/2,  Δβ=β3-β2-β1,
A10=Psig0,  A20=Ppump,  A30=0
NSFGL=Nsig0sin2ηnorPpump1/2L,
1-ηNLNsigL,Ppump>0NsigL,Ppump=0=cos2ηnorPpump1/2L,
ηtot=ηNIRηNLτ,

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