Abstract

We compare the cladding patterns present in grating structures fabricated with an ultrafast laser and a phase mask with a cw beam interference model. We find that the observed patterns agree well with the model results for picosecond pulses; however, for femtosecond pulses, we show that the full bandwidth and the pulsed nature of the sources must be considered because the pattern can be affected by group-velocity walk-off. An interesting consequence of order walk-off is the possibility of pure two-beam interference generation with a phase mask in the femtosecond pulse regime.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. N. M. Dragomir, C. Rollinson, S. A. Wade, A. J. Stevenson, S. F. Collins, G. W. Baxter, P. Farrell, and A. Roberts, Opt. Lett. 28, 789 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2004

2003

2000

1995

P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley, and R. Giedl, Opt. Commun. 115, 327 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Baxter, G. W.

Bilodeau, F.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Blott, B. H.

Brocklesby, W. S.

Collins, S. F.

Ding, H.

Dragomir, N. M.

Dyer, P. E.

P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley, and R. Giedl, Opt. Commun. 115, 327 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Farley, R. J.

P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley, and R. Giedl, Opt. Commun. 115, 327 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, P.

Giedl, R.

P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley, and R. Giedl, Opt. Commun. 115, 327 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Grobnic, D.

Henderson, G.

Hill, K. O.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hillman, C. W. J.

Johnson, D. C.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lu, P.

Malo, B.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mihailov, S. J.

Mills, J. D.

Roberts, A.

Rollinson, C.

Smelser, C. W.

Stevenson, A. J.

Unruh, J.

Wade, S. A.

Walker, R. B.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Microscope image of the all-silica fiber cladding after being irradiated with 2-ps pulses. (b) Modeled 11-beam interference pattern resulting from a 4.28µm-pitch mask. (c) Image of the cladding after irradiation with 400-fs pulses. (d) Modeled result including only five beams. These images are to scale. The spacing between adjacent interference maxima is the same as the pitch of the mask (4.28 µm).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Microscope image of the all-silica fiber cladding after being irradiated with 2-ps pulses. (b) Modeled five-beam interference pattern resulting from a 2.14µm-pitch mask. (c) Image of the cladding after irradiation with 400-fs pulses. (d) Modeled result including only three beams. These images are to scale. The spacing between adjacent interference maxima is the same as the pitch of the mask (2.14 µm).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) 150-fs pulse after it has traveled 100 µm beyond the 2µm phase mask. Inset, top view of the pulse. (b) 150-fs pulse after it has traveled 1 mm. Inset, top view of the pulse. Near the mask the interference pattern is complicated because it involves a number of orders, whereas at distances far from the mask, the pattern is predominantly two-beam interference.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Percentage of Energy in Each Order

Equations (1)

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Ex,y,t2=λ iaλai exp-iωt+ikx sinθi+ky cosθi2.

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