Abstract

We demonstrate efficient single-photon detection at 1.55 µm by means of sum-frequency mixing with a strong pump at 1.064 µm in periodically poled lithium niobate followed by photon counting in the visible region. This scheme offers significant advantages over existing InGaAs photon counters: continuous-wave operation, higher detection efficiency, higher counting rates, and no afterpulsing. We achieved single-photon upconversion efficiency of 90% at 21.6 W of circulating power in a resonant pump cavity with a 400-mW Nd:YAG laser. We observed high background counts at strong circulating pump powers due to efficient upconversion of pump-induced fluorescence photons.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, New J. Phys. 4, 41.1 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. S. Bethune and W. P. Risk, New J. Phys. 4, 42.1 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and C. G. Peterson, New J. Phys. 4, 43.1 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, J. G. Rarity, and T. Wall, J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1967 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. J. Mason, M. A. Albota, F. König, and F. N. C. Wong, Opt. Lett. 27, 2115 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. S. Bethune, W. P. Risk, and G. W. Pabst, arXiv.org e-Print archive, , November17, 2003, http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0311112 .
  7. J. M. Huang and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2153 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. A. Albota and F. N. C. Wong, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (QELS), Vol. 89 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), postdeadline paper QThPDB11.
  9. J. H. Shapiro, New J. Phys. 4, 47.1 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (5)

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, New J. Phys. 4, 41.1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Bethune and W. P. Risk, New J. Phys. 4, 42.1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and C. G. Peterson, New J. Phys. 4, 43.1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Shapiro, New J. Phys. 4, 47.1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Mason, M. A. Albota, F. König, and F. N. C. Wong, Opt. Lett. 27, 2115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, J. G. Rarity, and T. Wall, J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1967 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. M. Huang and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Albota, M. A.

E. J. Mason, M. A. Albota, F. König, and F. N. C. Wong, Opt. Lett. 27, 2115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Albota and F. N. C. Wong, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (QELS), Vol. 89 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), postdeadline paper QThPDB11.

Bethune, D. S.

D. S. Bethune and W. P. Risk, New J. Phys. 4, 42.1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Bethune, W. P. Risk, and G. W. Pabst, arXiv.org e-Print archive, , November17, 2003, http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0311112 .

Derkacs, D.

R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and C. G. Peterson, New J. Phys. 4, 43.1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, New J. Phys. 4, 41.1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guinnard, O.

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, New J. Phys. 4, 41.1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. M.

J. M. Huang and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hughes, R. J.

R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and C. G. Peterson, New J. Phys. 4, 43.1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

König, F.

Kumar, P.

J. M. Huang and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mason, E. J.

Nordholt, J. E.

R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and C. G. Peterson, New J. Phys. 4, 43.1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pabst, G. W.

D. S. Bethune, W. P. Risk, and G. W. Pabst, arXiv.org e-Print archive, , November17, 2003, http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0311112 .

Peterson, C. G.

R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and C. G. Peterson, New J. Phys. 4, 43.1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rarity, J. G.

D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, J. G. Rarity, and T. Wall, J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1967 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ribordy, G.

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, New J. Phys. 4, 41.1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, J. G. Rarity, and T. Wall, J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1967 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Risk, W. P.

D. S. Bethune and W. P. Risk, New J. Phys. 4, 42.1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Bethune, W. P. Risk, and G. W. Pabst, arXiv.org e-Print archive, , November17, 2003, http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0311112 .

Shapiro, J. H.

J. H. Shapiro, New J. Phys. 4, 47.1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stefanov, A.

D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, J. G. Rarity, and T. Wall, J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1967 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stucki, D.

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, New J. Phys. 4, 41.1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, J. G. Rarity, and T. Wall, J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1967 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wall, T.

D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, J. G. Rarity, and T. Wall, J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1967 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wong, F. N. C.

E. J. Mason, M. A. Albota, F. König, and F. N. C. Wong, Opt. Lett. 27, 2115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Albota and F. N. C. Wong, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (QELS), Vol. 89 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), postdeadline paper QThPDB11.

Zbinden, H.

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, New J. Phys. 4, 41.1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, J. G. Rarity, and T. Wall, J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1967 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, J. G. Rarity, and T. Wall, J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1967 (2001).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (4)

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, New J. Phys. 4, 41.1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Bethune and W. P. Risk, New J. Phys. 4, 42.1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and C. G. Peterson, New J. Phys. 4, 43.1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Shapiro, New J. Phys. 4, 47.1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. M. Huang and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

M. A. Albota and F. N. C. Wong, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (QELS), Vol. 89 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), postdeadline paper QThPDB11.

D. S. Bethune, W. P. Risk, and G. W. Pabst, arXiv.org e-Print archive, , November17, 2003, http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0311112 .

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for single-photon detection at 1.55 µm by means of upconversion. FC, fiber-optic collimator; BF, 10-nm interference filter at 633 nm and 1064-nm HR mirror; PPM, pump power monitor; PZT, piezoelectric transducer. Inset, wavelength phase-matching curve at a PPLN temperature of 229 °C (0.3nm bandwidth).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Weak-probe cw upconversion efficiency as a function of Pp. Filled circles, experimental data; solid curve, functional fit of Eq. (3) with Pmax=31 W.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Single-photon cw upconversion efficiency as a function of Pp (filled circles). Solid curve, functional fit of Eq. (3) with Pmax=35 W. Right axis, upconverted signal counts (filled circles) and background counts (open squares) as a function of Pp.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

aˆ1L=cosgEpLaˆ10-singEpLaˆ20,
aˆ2L=singEpLaˆ10+cosgEpLaˆ20,
η=sin2π/2Pp/Pmax1/2,
Pmax=c0n1n2λ1λ2λp128deff2Lh¯mB,L/bp.

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