Abstract

We describe a surface plasmon polariton–(SPP–) based device for measuring the intensity distribution of strongly focused light beams. A gold thin film configured as a sharp step is positioned in the focal region of a light beam, converting light into SPPs. The SPPs emit directional leakage radiation into the glass substrate beneath the thin film. The intensity of the leakage radiation is proportional to the intensity of the incident local light at the position of the step, allowing us to reconstruct the optical field profile by scanning the thin film’s edge through the focal region.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2003 (3)

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3665 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, J. Microsc. 209, 167 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, N. Felidj, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Walford, K. A. Nugent, A. Roberts, and R. E. Scholten, Opt. Lett. 27, 345 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, M. Eberler, O. Glöckl, and G. Leuchs, Appl. Phys. B 72, 109 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. K. Rhodes, A. Barty, A. Roberts, and K. A. Nugent, Opt. Commun. 145, 9 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1982 (1)

1971 (1)

Arnaud, J. A.

Aussenegg, F. R.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3665 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, J. Microsc. 209, 167 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, N. Felidj, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Barty, A.

S. K. Rhodes, A. Barty, A. Roberts, and K. A. Nugent, Opt. Commun. 145, 9 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Belland, P.

Beversluis, M.

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, England, 1999).
[CrossRef]

Bouhelier, A.

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Crenn, J. P.

de la Claviere, B.

Ditlbacher, H.

J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, J. Microsc. 209, 167 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3665 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, N. Felidj, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dorn, R.

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, M. Eberler, O. Glöckl, and G. Leuchs, Appl. Phys. B 72, 109 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Eberler, M.

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, M. Eberler, O. Glöckl, and G. Leuchs, Appl. Phys. B 72, 109 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Felidj, N.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, N. Felidj, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Franke, E. A.

Franke, J. M.

Gibson, S. F.

Glöckl, O.

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, M. Eberler, O. Glöckl, and G. Leuchs, Appl. Phys. B 72, 109 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hartschuh, A.

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hohenau, A.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3665 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, J. Microsc. 209, 167 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hubbard, W. M.

Krenn, J. R.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3665 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, J. Microsc. 209, 167 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, N. Felidj, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lamprecht, B.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, N. Felidj, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lanni, F.

Leitner, A.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3665 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, J. Microsc. 209, 167 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, N. Felidj, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leuchs, G.

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, M. Eberler, O. Glöckl, and G. Leuchs, Appl. Phys. B 72, 109 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mandeville, G. D.

McCord, M. A.

M. A. McCord and M. J. Rooks, in Handbook of Microlithography, Michromachining and Microfabrication, P. Rai-Choudhury, ed. (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Vol. 1, Chap. 2, pp. 139–249.

Novotny, L.

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nugent, K. A.

J. N. Walford, K. A. Nugent, A. Roberts, and R. E. Scholten, Opt. Lett. 27, 345 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Rhodes, A. Barty, A. Roberts, and K. A. Nugent, Opt. Commun. 145, 9 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Quabis, S.

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, M. Eberler, O. Glöckl, and G. Leuchs, Appl. Phys. B 72, 109 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, in Surface Plasmons, G. Höhler, ed., Vol. 111 of Springer Tracts in Modern Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), pp. 4–13.

Rhodes, S. K.

S. K. Rhodes, A. Barty, A. Roberts, and K. A. Nugent, Opt. Commun. 145, 9 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, A.

J. N. Walford, K. A. Nugent, A. Roberts, and R. E. Scholten, Opt. Lett. 27, 345 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Rhodes, A. Barty, A. Roberts, and K. A. Nugent, Opt. Commun. 145, 9 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rooks, M. J.

M. A. McCord and M. J. Rooks, in Handbook of Microlithography, Michromachining and Microfabrication, P. Rai-Choudhury, ed. (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Vol. 1, Chap. 2, pp. 139–249.

Salerno, M.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, N. Felidj, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schider, G.

J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, J. Microsc. 209, 167 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, N. Felidj, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scholten, R. E.

Walford, J. N.

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, England, 1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, M. Eberler, O. Glöckl, and G. Leuchs, Appl. Phys. B 72, 109 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, N. Felidj, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3665 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, J. Microsc. 209, 167 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. K. Rhodes, A. Barty, A. Roberts, and K. A. Nugent, Opt. Commun. 145, 9 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

S. Kawata, ed., Near-Field Optics and Surface Plasmon Polaritons, Vol. 81 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Raether, in Surface Plasmons, G. Höhler, ed., Vol. 111 of Springer Tracts in Modern Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), pp. 4–13.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, England, 1999).
[CrossRef]

M. A. McCord and M. J. Rooks, in Handbook of Microlithography, Michromachining and Microfabrication, P. Rai-Choudhury, ed. (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Vol. 1, Chap. 2, pp. 139–249.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Intensity maps for the microscope objective with “excellent” correction. The truncation ratios are (a) 0.22 and (c) 2.2. (b), (d) Corresponding calculated intensity maps. (e) Intensity distributions in the focal plane as indicated by the arrows in (c) and (d).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Intensity maps for the microscope objective with “good” correction. The truncation ratios are (a) 0.22 and (c) 2.2; (b), (d) data from (a) and (b), respectively, in three-dimensional plots.

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