Abstract

We report the diffraction properties at wavelengths of 632.8 and 1550 nm for volume transmission gratings made of a sequence of continuously aligned nematic liquid-crystal layers separated by isotropic polymer slices. The gratings are generated by holographically curing a solution of liquid crystal diluted in an isotropic prepolymer by means of a laser beam at a wavelength of 352 nm with a total intensity of approximately 10 mW/cm2. A diffraction efficiency of 98% was measured, and an electric field as low as 5 V/µm switches off the phase grating. Measured angular spectra are fitted by use of the modified coupled-mode theory including the effects of grating birefringence.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Jazbinsek, I. D. Olenik, M. Zgonik, A. K. Fontecchio, and G. P. Crawford, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3831 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. Pagliusi, Chem. Phys. 245, 429 (1999).
  4. L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. Bunning, and V. P. Tondiglia, Proc. SPIE 3292, 44 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Domash, G. Crawford, A. Ashmead, R. Smith, M. Popovich, and J. Storey, Proc. SPIE 4107, 46 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Caputo, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, A. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, “Realization of regular layered structures made of thin liquid crystal films separated by slices of polymeric material (POLICRYPS),” request for Italian patentTO2003A000530 (September7, 2003).
  7. R. Caputo, L. De Sio, A. V. Sukhov, N. V. Tabiryan, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, Opt. Lett. 29, 1261 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, N. V. Tabiryan, C. Umeton, and R. F. Ushakov, Chem. Phys. 271, 323 (2001).
  9. H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, S. Chandra, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, and S. A. Siwecki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 3004 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Montemezzani and M. Zgonik, Phys. Rev. E 55, 1035 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. J. Butler and M. S. Malcuit, Opt. Lett. 25, 420 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Boiko, J. Eakin, J. Vedrine, and G. P. Crawford, Opt. Lett. 27, 1717 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. L. Sutherland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2995 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2002 (3)

2001 (2)

R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, N. V. Tabiryan, C. Umeton, and R. F. Ushakov, Chem. Phys. 271, 323 (2001).

M. Jazbinsek, I. D. Olenik, M. Zgonik, A. K. Fontecchio, and G. P. Crawford, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3831 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

L. Domash, G. Crawford, A. Ashmead, R. Smith, M. Popovich, and J. Storey, Proc. SPIE 4107, 46 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Butler and M. S. Malcuit, Opt. Lett. 25, 420 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. Pagliusi, Chem. Phys. 245, 429 (1999).

1998 (1)

L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. Bunning, and V. P. Tondiglia, Proc. SPIE 3292, 44 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

G. Montemezzani and M. Zgonik, Phys. Rev. E 55, 1035 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Adams, W. W.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ashmead, A.

L. Domash, G. Crawford, A. Ashmead, R. Smith, M. Popovich, and J. Storey, Proc. SPIE 4107, 46 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Boiko, Y.

Brandelik, D. M.

Bunning, T. J.

L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. Bunning, and V. P. Tondiglia, Proc. SPIE 3292, 44 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Butler, J. J.

Caputo, R.

R. Caputo, L. De Sio, A. V. Sukhov, N. V. Tabiryan, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, Opt. Lett. 29, 1261 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, N. V. Tabiryan, C. Umeton, and R. F. Ushakov, Chem. Phys. 271, 323 (2001).

R. Caputo, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, A. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, “Realization of regular layered structures made of thin liquid crystal films separated by slices of polymeric material (POLICRYPS),” request for Italian patentTO2003A000530 (September7, 2003).

Chandra, S.

Cipparrone, G.

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. Pagliusi, Chem. Phys. 245, 429 (1999).

Crawford, G.

L. Domash, G. Crawford, A. Ashmead, R. Smith, M. Popovich, and J. Storey, Proc. SPIE 4107, 46 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, G. P.

Y. Boiko, J. Eakin, J. Vedrine, and G. P. Crawford, Opt. Lett. 27, 1717 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Jazbinsek, I. D. Olenik, M. Zgonik, A. K. Fontecchio, and G. P. Crawford, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3831 (2001).
[CrossRef]

De Sio, L.

Domash, L.

L. Domash, G. Crawford, A. Ashmead, R. Smith, M. Popovich, and J. Storey, Proc. SPIE 4107, 46 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eakin, J.

Fontecchio, A. K.

M. Jazbinsek, I. D. Olenik, M. Zgonik, A. K. Fontecchio, and G. P. Crawford, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3831 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jazbinsek, M.

M. Jazbinsek, I. D. Olenik, M. Zgonik, A. K. Fontecchio, and G. P. Crawford, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3831 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Malcuit, M. S.

Mazzulla, A.

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. Pagliusi, Chem. Phys. 245, 429 (1999).

Montemezzani, G.

G. Montemezzani and M. Zgonik, Phys. Rev. E 55, 1035 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Natarajan, L. V.

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, S. Chandra, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, and S. A. Siwecki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 3004 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. Bunning, and V. P. Tondiglia, Proc. SPIE 3292, 44 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Olenik, I. D.

M. Jazbinsek, I. D. Olenik, M. Zgonik, A. K. Fontecchio, and G. P. Crawford, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3831 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pagliusi, P.

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. Pagliusi, Chem. Phys. 245, 429 (1999).

Popovich, M.

L. Domash, G. Crawford, A. Ashmead, R. Smith, M. Popovich, and J. Storey, Proc. SPIE 4107, 46 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, C. K.

Simoni, F.

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. Pagliusi, Chem. Phys. 245, 429 (1999).

Siwecki, S. A.

Smith, R.

L. Domash, G. Crawford, A. Ashmead, R. Smith, M. Popovich, and J. Storey, Proc. SPIE 4107, 46 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Storey, J.

L. Domash, G. Crawford, A. Ashmead, R. Smith, M. Popovich, and J. Storey, Proc. SPIE 4107, 46 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sukhov, A.

R. Caputo, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, A. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, “Realization of regular layered structures made of thin liquid crystal films separated by slices of polymeric material (POLICRYPS),” request for Italian patentTO2003A000530 (September7, 2003).

Sukhov, A. V.

R. Caputo, L. De Sio, A. V. Sukhov, N. V. Tabiryan, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, Opt. Lett. 29, 1261 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, N. V. Tabiryan, C. Umeton, and R. F. Ushakov, Chem. Phys. 271, 323 (2001).

Sutherland, R. L.

R. L. Sutherland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2995 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, S. Chandra, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, and S. A. Siwecki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 3004 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. Bunning, and V. P. Tondiglia, Proc. SPIE 3292, 44 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tabiryan, N. V.

R. Caputo, L. De Sio, A. V. Sukhov, N. V. Tabiryan, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, Opt. Lett. 29, 1261 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, N. V. Tabiryan, C. Umeton, and R. F. Ushakov, Chem. Phys. 271, 323 (2001).

R. Caputo, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, A. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, “Realization of regular layered structures made of thin liquid crystal films separated by slices of polymeric material (POLICRYPS),” request for Italian patentTO2003A000530 (September7, 2003).

Tondiglia, V. P.

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, S. Chandra, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, and S. A. Siwecki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 3004 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. Bunning, and V. P. Tondiglia, Proc. SPIE 3292, 44 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Umeton, C.

R. Caputo, L. De Sio, A. V. Sukhov, N. V. Tabiryan, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, Opt. Lett. 29, 1261 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, N. V. Tabiryan, C. Umeton, and R. F. Ushakov, Chem. Phys. 271, 323 (2001).

R. Caputo, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, A. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, “Realization of regular layered structures made of thin liquid crystal films separated by slices of polymeric material (POLICRYPS),” request for Italian patentTO2003A000530 (September7, 2003).

Ushakov, R. F.

R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, N. V. Tabiryan, C. Umeton, and R. F. Ushakov, Chem. Phys. 271, 323 (2001).

Vedrine, J.

Veltri, A.

R. Caputo, L. De Sio, A. V. Sukhov, N. V. Tabiryan, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, Opt. Lett. 29, 1261 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Caputo, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, A. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, “Realization of regular layered structures made of thin liquid crystal films separated by slices of polymeric material (POLICRYPS),” request for Italian patentTO2003A000530 (September7, 2003).

Zgonik, M.

M. Jazbinsek, I. D. Olenik, M. Zgonik, A. K. Fontecchio, and G. P. Crawford, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3831 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Montemezzani and M. Zgonik, Phys. Rev. E 55, 1035 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (2)

R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, N. V. Tabiryan, C. Umeton, and R. F. Ushakov, Chem. Phys. 271, 323 (2001).

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. Pagliusi, Chem. Phys. 245, 429 (1999).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Jazbinsek, I. D. Olenik, M. Zgonik, A. K. Fontecchio, and G. P. Crawford, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3831 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

G. Montemezzani and M. Zgonik, Phys. Rev. E 55, 1035 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. Bunning, and V. P. Tondiglia, Proc. SPIE 3292, 44 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Domash, G. Crawford, A. Ashmead, R. Smith, M. Popovich, and J. Storey, Proc. SPIE 4107, 46 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

R. Caputo, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, A. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, “Realization of regular layered structures made of thin liquid crystal films separated by slices of polymeric material (POLICRYPS),” request for Italian patentTO2003A000530 (September7, 2003).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Philips XL20 SEM micrograph of a holographic grating made of NLC 5CB and Norland UV curable adhesive NOA-61.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

POLICRYPS (a) active and (b) switched-off grating, with corresponding LC orientation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diffraction efficiency of a POLICRYPS grating versus applied electric field measured at 632.8 and 1550 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated (dashed curve, p polarization; solid curve, s polarization) and measured (p polarization, +s polarization) angular spectra of the diffraction efficiency of a POLICRYPS cell at (a) 632.8 and (b) 1550 nm.

Equations (1)

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η=sin2πLλ cos θeˆ0·1·eˆ12nave cosδ,

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