Abstract

We report the use of phytochrome A (phyA), a plant protein that can reversibly switch between two states with different absorption maxima (at 660 and 730 nm), as a contrast agent for molecular contrast optical coherence tomography (MCOCT). Our MCOCT scheme builds up a difference image revealing the distribution of phyA within a target sample from pairs of consecutive OCT A-scans acquired at a probe wavelength of 750 nm, both with and without additional illumination of the target sample with 660-nm light. We demonstrate molecular imaging with this new MCOCT modality in a target sample containing a mixture of 0.2% Intralipid and 83 µM of phyA.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2003 (2)

2001 (1)

C. Fankhauser, J. Biol. Chem. 276, 11453 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. M. Schmitt, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, Opt. Lett. 22, 4139 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. F. deBoer, T. E. Milner, M. J. C. vanGemert, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 22, 934 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Kohler, W. R. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, and M. R. Hanson, Plant J. 11, 613 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 157 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barton, J. K.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, Opt. Lett. 22, 4139 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boppart, S. A.

Choma, M. A.

deBoer, J. F.

Denk, W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fankhauser, C.

C. Fankhauser, J. Biol. Chem. 276, 11453 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 157 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanson, M. R.

R. H. Kohler, W. R. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, and M. R. Hanson, Plant J. 11, 613 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

K. D. Rao, M. A. Choma, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 28, 340 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, Opt. Lett. 22, 4139 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kohler, R. H.

R. H. Kohler, W. R. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, and M. R. Hanson, Plant J. 11, 613 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kulkarni, M. D.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, Opt. Lett. 22, 4139 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T. M.

Luo, W.

Marks, D. L.

Milner, T. E.

Nelson, J. S.

Oldenburg, A. L.

Rao, K. D.

Rollins, A. M.

Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Schmitt, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sitafalwalla, S.

Strickler, J. H.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suslick, K. S.

Toublan, F. J. J.

vanGemert, M. J. C.

Webb, W. W.

R. H. Kohler, W. R. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, and M. R. Hanson, Plant J. 11, 613 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welch, A. J.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, Opt. Lett. 22, 4139 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yazdanfar, S.

K. D. Rao, M. A. Choma, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 28, 340 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, Opt. Lett. 22, 4139 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zipfel, W. R.

R. H. Kohler, W. R. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, and M. R. Hanson, Plant J. 11, 613 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. M. Schmitt, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Biol. Chem. (1)

C. Fankhauser, J. Biol. Chem. 276, 11453 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 157 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Plant J. (1)

R. H. Kohler, W. R. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, and M. R. Hanson, Plant J. 11, 613 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectra of 83µM phyA in its native Pr state and in its Pfr state following strong illumination (>1 W/cm2 of 750-nm light) at 730 nm. (Data were acquired by transmission measurements in a HP8452A spectrophotometer.) The squares represent the observed absorption coefficient change at different potential MCOCT probe wavelengths under illumination by the pump light (intensity 200 mW/cm2) at wavelength 660 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plot of the observed fractional phyA population undergoing state change versus the ratio of 750-nm probe light to modulated 660-nm pump light intensity used. The solid curve is the best fit of the data to approximation (2). The filled (open) arrow shows the expected population ratio of phyA in the Pfr state for step (B) [step (D)] of the imaging sequence under the chosen experimental parameters.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the MCOCT experimental setup. ADC, analog-to-digital converter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) 750-nm OCT B-scan with phyA in the Pr state (1.5 mm wide×2 mm deep); the OCT B-scan with phyA in the Pfr state appears to be similar (not shown). (b) MCOCT differential scan derived based on the operations described in Eq. (4). (c) Unwrapped MCOCT scan derived based on the operations described in Eq. (5). (d) A-scans with phyA in the Pr and Pfr states extracted from the locations indicated by the arrows in (a). (e) A-scans with phyA in the Pr and Pfr states extracted from the locations indicated in (a).

Equations (5)

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dnPfrdt=n0-nPfrτPr-σPfr,750nmεIRhν750nmI750nmnPfr+σPr,660nmεRhν660nmI660nmn0-nPfr,
nPfrn01/1+ν660nmεIRσPfr,750nmν750nmεRσPr,660nmI750nmI660nm=11+aI750nm/I660nm,
Pz=2PSoPRoRzexp-0zμaz+μazdz,
lnPPrzPPfrz=0zμa,Pfrz-μa,Przdz=0zΔμazdz.
lnPPrz+ΔzPPfrz+Δz-lnPPrzPPfrz=zz+ΔzΔμazdzΔμazΔz.

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