Abstract

Adaptive optics systems measure the wave front to be corrected by use of a reference source, a star, or a laser beacon. Such laser guide stars are a few kilometers long, and when observed near the edges of large telescopes they appear elongated. This limits their utility significantly. However, with more sophisticated launch optics their shape and length can be controlled. We propose to string around the rim of a telescope a number of small telescopes that will add laser beams in the scattering medium to create a compact spot. The method could also be adapted for ocular adaptive optics.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Anderson and A. Arneberg, eds., Proc. SPIE 5382 (to be published).
  2. D. Sandler, in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, F. Roddier, ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, England, 1999), p. 253.
  3. J. M. Beckers, Appl. Opt. 31, 6592 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. M. Beckers, Proc. SPIE 1114, 215 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Lloyd-Hart, J. Georges, R. Angel, G. Brusa, and P. Young, Proc. SPIE 4494, 259 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Nelson, Ref. 1.
  7. R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, ESO Proc. 58 (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 2001), p. 417.
  8. Y. Baharav, E. N. Ribak, and J. Shamir, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1083 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. F. Buscher, G. D. Love, and R. M. Myers, Opt. Lett. 27, 149 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. A. Thompson, Proc. SPIE 4839, 1175 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Ragazzoni, E. Marchetti, and G. Valente, Nature 403, 5 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. N. Ribak, Opt. Lett. 28, 613 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Tallon and R. Foy, Astron. Astrophys. 235, 549 (1990).
  14. R. Ragazzoni and F. Rigaut, Astron. Astrophys. 338, L100 (1998).
  15. E. N. Ribak and R. Ragazzoni, ESO Proc. 58 (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 2001), p. 58.
  16. A. Thaning, Z. Jaroszewicz, and A. T. Friberg, Appl. Opt. 17, 9 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. D. H. Pilkington, Nature 330, 116 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  18. E. Viard, F. Delplancke, N. Hubin, N. Ageorges, and R. Davies, Exp. Astron. 10, 123 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2003

A. Thaning, Z. Jaroszewicz, and A. T. Friberg, Appl. Opt. 17, 9 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Thompson, Proc. SPIE 4839, 1175 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Ribak, Opt. Lett. 28, 613 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

D. F. Buscher, G. D. Love, and R. M. Myers, Opt. Lett. 27, 149 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Lloyd-Hart, J. Georges, R. Angel, G. Brusa, and P. Young, Proc. SPIE 4494, 259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

R. Ragazzoni, E. Marchetti, and G. Valente, Nature 403, 5 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Viard, F. Delplancke, N. Hubin, N. Ageorges, and R. Davies, Exp. Astron. 10, 123 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

R. Ragazzoni and F. Rigaut, Astron. Astrophys. 338, L100 (1998).

1996

1992

1990

M. Tallon and R. Foy, Astron. Astrophys. 235, 549 (1990).

1989

J. M. Beckers, Proc. SPIE 1114, 215 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987

J. D. H. Pilkington, Nature 330, 116 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ageorges, N.

E. Viard, F. Delplancke, N. Hubin, N. Ageorges, and R. Davies, Exp. Astron. 10, 123 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Angel, R.

M. Lloyd-Hart, J. Georges, R. Angel, G. Brusa, and P. Young, Proc. SPIE 4494, 259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baharav, Y.

Beckers, J. M.

Brusa, G.

M. Lloyd-Hart, J. Georges, R. Angel, G. Brusa, and P. Young, Proc. SPIE 4494, 259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Buscher, D. F.

Davies, R.

E. Viard, F. Delplancke, N. Hubin, N. Ageorges, and R. Davies, Exp. Astron. 10, 123 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Delplancke, F.

E. Viard, F. Delplancke, N. Hubin, N. Ageorges, and R. Davies, Exp. Astron. 10, 123 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Diolaiti, E.

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, ESO Proc. 58 (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 2001), p. 417.

Foy, R.

M. Tallon and R. Foy, Astron. Astrophys. 235, 549 (1990).

Friberg, A. T.

A. Thaning, Z. Jaroszewicz, and A. T. Friberg, Appl. Opt. 17, 9 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Georges, J.

M. Lloyd-Hart, J. Georges, R. Angel, G. Brusa, and P. Young, Proc. SPIE 4494, 259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hubin, N.

E. Viard, F. Delplancke, N. Hubin, N. Ageorges, and R. Davies, Exp. Astron. 10, 123 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jaroszewicz, Z.

A. Thaning, Z. Jaroszewicz, and A. T. Friberg, Appl. Opt. 17, 9 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kirkman, D.

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, ESO Proc. 58 (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 2001), p. 417.

Lloyd-Hart, M.

M. Lloyd-Hart, J. Georges, R. Angel, G. Brusa, and P. Young, Proc. SPIE 4494, 259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Love, G. D.

Marchetti, E.

R. Ragazzoni, E. Marchetti, and G. Valente, Nature 403, 5 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Myers, R. M.

Nelson, J.

J. Nelson, Ref. 1.

Pilkington, J. D. H.

J. D. H. Pilkington, Nature 330, 116 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ragazzoni, R.

R. Ragazzoni, E. Marchetti, and G. Valente, Nature 403, 5 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni and F. Rigaut, Astron. Astrophys. 338, L100 (1998).

E. N. Ribak and R. Ragazzoni, ESO Proc. 58 (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 2001), p. 58.

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, ESO Proc. 58 (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 2001), p. 417.

Ribak, E. N.

E. N. Ribak, Opt. Lett. 28, 613 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Baharav, E. N. Ribak, and J. Shamir, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1083 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Ribak and R. Ragazzoni, ESO Proc. 58 (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 2001), p. 58.

Rigaut, F.

R. Ragazzoni and F. Rigaut, Astron. Astrophys. 338, L100 (1998).

Sandler, D.

D. Sandler, in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, F. Roddier, ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, England, 1999), p. 253.

Shamir, J.

Tallon, M.

M. Tallon and R. Foy, Astron. Astrophys. 235, 549 (1990).

Thaning, A.

A. Thaning, Z. Jaroszewicz, and A. T. Friberg, Appl. Opt. 17, 9 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, L. A.

L. A. Thompson, Proc. SPIE 4839, 1175 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tordi, M.

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, ESO Proc. 58 (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 2001), p. 417.

Valente, G.

R. Ragazzoni, E. Marchetti, and G. Valente, Nature 403, 5 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Viard, E.

E. Viard, F. Delplancke, N. Hubin, N. Ageorges, and R. Davies, Exp. Astron. 10, 123 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Young, P.

M. Lloyd-Hart, J. Georges, R. Angel, G. Brusa, and P. Young, Proc. SPIE 4494, 259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

A. Thaning, Z. Jaroszewicz, and A. T. Friberg, Appl. Opt. 17, 9 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Beckers, Appl. Opt. 31, 6592 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Astron. Astrophys.

M. Tallon and R. Foy, Astron. Astrophys. 235, 549 (1990).

R. Ragazzoni and F. Rigaut, Astron. Astrophys. 338, L100 (1998).

Exp. Astron.

E. Viard, F. Delplancke, N. Hubin, N. Ageorges, and R. Davies, Exp. Astron. 10, 123 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Nature

J. D. H. Pilkington, Nature 330, 116 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, E. Marchetti, and G. Valente, Nature 403, 5 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

L. A. Thompson, Proc. SPIE 4839, 1175 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Anderson and A. Arneberg, eds., Proc. SPIE 5382 (to be published).

J. M. Beckers, Proc. SPIE 1114, 215 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Lloyd-Hart, J. Georges, R. Angel, G. Brusa, and P. Young, Proc. SPIE 4494, 259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Nelson, Ref. 1.

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, ESO Proc. 58 (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 2001), p. 417.

D. Sandler, in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, F. Roddier, ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, England, 1999), p. 253.

E. N. Ribak and R. Ragazzoni, ESO Proc. 58 (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 2001), p. 58.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Left, fibers feed into separate telescopes around the telescope primary or its secondary. Right, mirrors around the edges of the mirror are focused at the required position.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Geometry of the projected beams. The angular extent of the spot subtends the two-cone overlap volume of all side beams. For coherent addition, w drops by d/L.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spot created by addition from a projection circle of 13 apertures for D/r0200 and D/d=64. We begin to discern spot elongation as we step out from the telescope center (left to right, top to bottom) and cross the circle of apertures (fifth image and on). Left, the spots were gated to show scattering from only the sodium layer. Center, Rayleigh scattering gated for the last 10% of the optical path and, right, for the last 7.5%.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cuts along the Rayleigh spots gated for the last 7.5% of the path, as in the right-hand sequence in Fig. 3. The diffraction size is 50 pixels FWHM (as in the leftmost cut). A single beacon would be 9 times longer than the rightmost cut and 35 times longer for Na.

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