We present the effects of a finite number of pixels in elemental images on the resolution and the depth of focus in three-dimensional integral imaging (II). We show that the number of pixels in elemental images determines not only the lateral resolution but also the depth resolution. The minimum number of pixels required in each elemental image is calculated to avoid depth-of-focus degradation. We evaluate how II system performance degrades as the number of pixels in each elemental image changes. The product of the depth of focus and the lateral resolution squared is used as the performance metric.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2003 (2)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

1998 (1)

1978 (1)

1971 (1)

1968 (1)

1908 (1)

G. Lippmann, C. R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446 (1908).

Burckhardt, C. B.

Hamasaki, J.

Higuchi, H.

Hoshino, H.

Isono, H.

Jang, J.-S.

Javidi, B.

Jin, F.

Jung, S.

Lee, B.

Lippmann, G.

G. Lippmann, C. R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446 (1908).

Min, S.-W.

Okano, F.

Okoshi, T.

Park, J.-H.

Yuyama, I.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of II: (a) pickup (left arrow) and display (right arrow), (b) 3-D image formation in depth-priority II, (c) 3-D image formation in resolution-priority II.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diverging spot size for a finite number of pixels.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ray-crossing diagram in II.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Plot of II parameters: (a) Average separation of image planes, (b) minimum number of pixels in each elemental image, (c) lateral resolution, (d) PDLRS.

Equations (12)

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RL, d=1/s=Nf/Nf+zd.
RD, d=1/ΔL¯0.3N/f.
Dd=minNf, d2/2λ.
RL, r=1s=Ngd2λNg+d2Limg.
RD, r=1ΔL¯0.3Ng=0.3NLimg-fLimgf,
Dr=minNg, Limg+2λLimg2d2-Limg+2λLimg2d2.