Abstract

We present experimental results of two-wave mixing in single-mode Er-doped optical fibers for which dynamic Bragg reflectance gratings are formed as a result of saturation of fiber-optic absorption (i.e., by means of the effect of spatial hole burning). The gratings are probed by the same recording waves at λ1549 nm and are detected as periodic changes of the intensity of light reflected from a Sagnac interferometer (with a piece of the doped fiber included) observed when periodic phase modulation is induced in one of the waves. Both rectangular and sinusoidal modulation were used, which permitted evaluation of the grating recording time (τg3 ms for OFS-Fitel EDF-HG980 fiber) and the grating amplitude, which proved to be approximately 6–7 times lower than expected from measurements of saturation of fiber-optic absorption by one wave only.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, and J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1999), Chap. 4.
  11. S. Stepanov and M. Plata, Ukr. J. Phys.49, 389 (2004).

1999

1998

M. D. Feuer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1587 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, L. Reekie, A. C. Trooper, and D. C. Hanna, Opt. Lett. 22, 41 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

S. Stepanov, Rep. Progr. Phys. 57, 39 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Horowitz, R. Daisy, B. Fischer, and J. Zyskind, Electron. Lett. 30, 648 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

B. Fischer, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, and D. J. DiGiovanni, Electron. Lett. 29, 1858 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Fischer, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, and D. J. DiGiovanni, Opt. Lett. 18, 2108 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

1988

D. B. Mortimore, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1217 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Becker, P. C.

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, and J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1999), Chap. 4.

Daisy, R.

M. Horowitz, R. Daisy, B. Fischer, and J. Zyskind, Electron. Lett. 30, 648 (1994).
[CrossRef]

DiGiovanni, D. J.

B. Fischer, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, and D. J. DiGiovanni, Electron. Lett. 29, 1858 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Fischer, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, and D. J. DiGiovanni, Opt. Lett. 18, 2108 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Feuer, M. D.

M. D. Feuer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1587 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B.

S. A. Havstad, B. Fischer, A. E. Willner, and M. G. Wickham, Opt. Lett. 24, 1466 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Horowitz, R. Daisy, B. Fischer, and J. Zyskind, Electron. Lett. 30, 648 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Fischer, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, and D. J. DiGiovanni, Opt. Lett. 18, 2108 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Fischer, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, and D. J. DiGiovanni, Electron. Lett. 29, 1858 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Frisken, S.

Hanna, D. C.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, L. Reekie, A. C. Trooper, and D. C. Hanna, Opt. Lett. 22, 41 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Havstad, S. A.

Horowitz, M.

M. Horowitz, R. Daisy, B. Fischer, and J. Zyskind, Electron. Lett. 30, 648 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mortimore, D. B.

D. B. Mortimore, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1217 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, J.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, L. Reekie, A. C. Trooper, and D. C. Hanna, Opt. Lett. 22, 41 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Olsson, N. A.

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, and J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1999), Chap. 4.

Paschotta, R.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, L. Reekie, A. C. Trooper, and D. C. Hanna, Opt. Lett. 22, 41 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Plata, M.

S. Stepanov and M. Plata, Ukr. J. Phys.49, 389 (2004).

Reekie, L.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, L. Reekie, A. C. Trooper, and D. C. Hanna, Opt. Lett. 22, 41 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, J. R.

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, and J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1999), Chap. 4.

Stepanov, S.

S. Stepanov, Rep. Progr. Phys. 57, 39 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Stepanov and M. Plata, Ukr. J. Phys.49, 389 (2004).

Sulhoff, J. W.

B. Fischer, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, and D. J. DiGiovanni, Opt. Lett. 18, 2108 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Fischer, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, and D. J. DiGiovanni, Electron. Lett. 29, 1858 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Trooper, A. C.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, L. Reekie, A. C. Trooper, and D. C. Hanna, Opt. Lett. 22, 41 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wickham, M. G.

Willner, A. E.

Zyskind, J.

M. Horowitz, R. Daisy, B. Fischer, and J. Zyskind, Electron. Lett. 30, 648 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zyskind, J. L.

B. Fischer, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, and D. J. DiGiovanni, Electron. Lett. 29, 1858 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Fischer, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, and D. J. DiGiovanni, Opt. Lett. 18, 2108 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

B. Fischer, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, and D. J. DiGiovanni, Electron. Lett. 29, 1858 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Horowitz, R. Daisy, B. Fischer, and J. Zyskind, Electron. Lett. 30, 648 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

M. D. Feuer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1587 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

D. B. Mortimore, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1217 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Rep. Progr. Phys.

S. Stepanov, Rep. Progr. Phys. 57, 39 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, and J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1999), Chap. 4.

S. Stepanov and M. Plata, Ukr. J. Phys.49, 389 (2004).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup based on the configuration of a Sagnac interferometer for observation of TWM in Er-doped fibers: PC, polarization controllers; EOM, EO modulator; 50/50, coupler.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized steady-state patterns of the light intensity and the optical absorption in the recorded grating are shown by solid and dashed curves, respectively. A profile of the light intensity in an interference pattern (i.e., inverted) shifted by π is shown by the dotted curve. Average levels of all patterns (which also correspond to incoherent illumination) are shown by a dashed–dotted line.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflectance Pr/Pin of the Sagnac interferometer (into output 1 in Fig. 1) versus total input power Pin for low-coherence (filled circles) and high-coherence (open squares) operation of the distributed-feedback laser. Inset, oscilloscope trace of normalized reflected power Prt/Pin for rectangular phase modulation with a temporal period of 16 ms and amplitude ±π/2 Pin1.8 mW.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Amplitude of the reflected signal detected at second harmonic Ur2Ω versus frequency of sinusoidal modulation Ω/2π for UgenΩ=2 V. Inset, dependence of Ur2Ω on the amplitude of the sinusoidal phase modulation UgenΩ for Ω/2π=60 Hz Pin1.8 mW.

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