Abstract

We identify two states of stress induced in waveguides fabricated by femtosecond lasers in fused silica and show how they can be relieved by annealing. In-plane stress and stress concentration are revealed through birefringence and loss measurements. Another kind of laser-induced stress appears in the form of swelling of the glass surface when waveguides are written near the surface and is a manifestation of confined rapid material quenching. By annealing the sample we reduce the losses by 30% (at 633 nm) and decrease the birefringence by a factor of 4 in fused silica.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2003 (3)

M. Huang, Int. J. Solids Struct. 40, 1615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Gorelik, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and U. Glatzel, Appl. Phys. A 76, 309 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, Opt. Express 11, 775 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

J. W. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, Opt. Lett. 26, 1726 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 191, 333 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, S. Grantham, and M. Richardon, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 253, 58 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. Morand, C. Sanchez-Perez, P. Benech, S. Tedjini, and D. Bose, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

U. Hempelmann, H. Hermann, G. Mrozynski, V. Reimann, and W. Sohler, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1750 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1989 (1)

M. Rothschild, D. J. Ehrlich, and D. C. Shaver, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

A. Brandenburg, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1580 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Allan, D. C.

Araujo, R. J.

Batchman, T. E.

Benech, P.

A. Morand, C. Sanchez-Perez, P. Benech, S. Tedjini, and D. Bose, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bhardwaj, V. R.

Borrelli, N. F.

Bose, D.

A. Morand, C. Sanchez-Perez, P. Benech, S. Tedjini, and D. Bose, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brandenburg, A.

A. Brandenburg, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1580 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chan, J. W.

Corkum, P. B.

Davis, K. M.

Efimov, O. M.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, S. Grantham, and M. Richardon, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 253, 58 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ehrlich, D. J.

M. Rothschild, D. J. Ehrlich, and D. C. Shaver, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 191, 333 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Glatzel, U.

T. Gorelik, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and U. Glatzel, Appl. Phys. A 76, 309 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Glebov, L. B.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, S. Grantham, and M. Richardon, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 253, 58 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Glezer, E. N.

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 882 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gorelik, T.

T. Gorelik, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and U. Glatzel, Appl. Phys. A 76, 309 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grantham, S.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, S. Grantham, and M. Richardon, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 253, 58 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hempelmann, U.

U. Hempelmann, H. Hermann, G. Mrozynski, V. Reimann, and W. Sohler, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1750 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hermann, H.

U. Hempelmann, H. Hermann, G. Mrozynski, V. Reimann, and W. Sohler, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1750 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hickernell, R. K.

Hirao, K.

Hnatovsky, C.

Huang, M.

M. Huang, Int. J. Solids Struct. 40, 1615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huser, T.

Krol, D. M.

Larson, D. R.

Mazur, E.

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 882 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

Morand, A.

A. Morand, C. Sanchez-Perez, P. Benech, S. Tedjini, and D. Bose, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mrozynski, G.

U. Hempelmann, H. Hermann, G. Mrozynski, V. Reimann, and W. Sohler, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1750 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 191, 333 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

T. Gorelik, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and U. Glatzel, Appl. Phys. A 76, 309 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Prade, B.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 191, 333 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, D. M.

Reimann, V.

U. Hempelmann, H. Hermann, G. Mrozynski, V. Reimann, and W. Sohler, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1750 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Richardon, M.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, S. Grantham, and M. Richardon, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 253, 58 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Risbud, S.

Rothschild, M.

M. Rothschild, D. J. Ehrlich, and D. C. Shaver, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez-Perez, C.

A. Morand, C. Sanchez-Perez, P. Benech, S. Tedjini, and D. Bose, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Seward, T. P.

Shaver, D. C.

M. Rothschild, D. J. Ehrlich, and D. C. Shaver, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Simova, E.

Smith, C.

Smith, C. M.

Sohler, W.

U. Hempelmann, H. Hermann, G. Mrozynski, V. Reimann, and W. Sohler, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1750 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Streltsov, A. M.

Sudrie, L.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 191, 333 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Taylor, R. S.

Tedjini, S.

A. Morand, C. Sanchez-Perez, P. Benech, S. Tedjini, and D. Bose, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tuennermann, A.

T. Gorelik, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and U. Glatzel, Appl. Phys. A 76, 309 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Veasey, D. L.

Will, M.

T. Gorelik, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and U. Glatzel, Appl. Phys. A 76, 309 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

T. Gorelik, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and U. Glatzel, Appl. Phys. A 76, 309 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. Rothschild, D. J. Ehrlich, and D. C. Shaver, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 882 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Morand, C. Sanchez-Perez, P. Benech, S. Tedjini, and D. Bose, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Solids Struct. (1)

M. Huang, Int. J. Solids Struct. 40, 1615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

A. Brandenburg, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1580 (1986).
[CrossRef]

U. Hempelmann, H. Hermann, G. Mrozynski, V. Reimann, and W. Sohler, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1750 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, S. Grantham, and M. Richardon, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 253, 58 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 191, 333 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

AFM image of surface swelling in fused silica. The waveguide was produced by focusing (NA, 0.65) a 270-mW, 100-kHz laser beam 3 µm below the top surface and translating the sample perpendicularly to the laser beam at a scan rate of 100 µm/s.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Laser-induced birefringence =Imin/Imax in waveguides as a function of dosage before and after annealing at 570 °C. Dosage is defined as the ratio of laser power to the product of scan speed and waveguide cross-sectional area.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Waveguide losses measured at 633 nm as a function of dosage before and after annealing at 570 °C.

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