Abstract

We demonstrate propagation of femtosecond pulses in the 800-nm range through a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber with preserved temporal and spectral profiles for pulse energies up to 4.6 nJ. Without the use of a prechirping unit, 170-fs pulses were transmitted essentially undistorted at 812 nm, near the zero-dispersion wavelength. Because of the air guidance of pulses, intensity-dependent nonlinear effects were minimal, with only 15% pulse broadening occurring at 350-mW average output power. This fiber thus is excellently suited for applications that require single-mode delivery of high-energy ultrashort pulses to the fiber output face such as, for example, miniaturized multiphoton microscopes.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2003

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, Nature Biotechnol. 21, 1369 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Bird and M. Gu, Opt. Lett. 28, 1552 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, Science 301, 1702 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Jung and M. Schnitzer, Opt. Lett. 28, 902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, L. Farr, B. J. Mangan, and H. Sabert, Opt. Express 11, 1613 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tsang, D. Psaltis, and F. G. Omenetto, Opt. Lett. 28, 1873 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

2001

1999

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

Ahmad, F. R.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, Science 301, 1702 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allan, D. C.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuska, A.

Bird, D.

D. Bird and M. Gu, Opt. Lett. 28, 1552 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birks, T. A.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouwmans, G.

Clark, S. W.

Cregan, R. F.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denk, W.

F. Helmchen, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, Appl. Opt. 41, 2930 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Helmchen, M. S. Fee, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, Neuron 31, 903 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farr, L.

Fee, M. S.

F. Helmchen, M. S. Fee, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, Neuron 31, 903 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, M. A.

Gaeta, A. L.

Gallagher, M. T.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, Science 301, 1702 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, M.

D. Bird and M. Gu, Opt. Lett. 28, 1552 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helmchen, F.

F. Helmchen, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, Appl. Opt. 41, 2930 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Helmchen, M. S. Fee, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, Neuron 31, 903 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ilday, F. Ö.

Jung, J. C.

Kawachi, M.

Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, K. Shihoyama, and M. Kawachi, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 887 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, L. Farr, B. J. Mangan, and H. Sabert, Opt. Express 11, 1613 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, K. W.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, Science 301, 1702 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luan, F.

Mangan, B. J.

G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, L. Farr, B. J. Mangan, and H. Sabert, Opt. Express 11, 1613 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsuura, Y.

Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, K. Shihoyama, and M. Kawachi, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 887 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Miyagi, M.

Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, K. Shihoyama, and M. Kawachi, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 887 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moll, K. D.

Moores, M. D.

Müller, D.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, Science 301, 1702 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Omenetto, F. G.

Ouzounov, D. G.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, Science 301, 1702 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, K. D. Moll, M. A. Foster, W. R. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, and A. L. Gaeta, Opt. Lett. 27, 1513 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Psaltis, D.

Pshenichnikov, M. S.

Ranka, J. K.

Reitze, D. H.

Roberts, P. J.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P. St. J.

G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, L. Farr, B. J. Mangan, and H. Sabert, Opt. Express 11, 1613 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sabert, H.

Schnitzer, M.

Shihoyama, K.

Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, K. Shihoyama, and M. Kawachi, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 887 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Silcox, J.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, Science 301, 1702 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tank, D. W.

F. Helmchen, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, Appl. Opt. 41, 2930 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Helmchen, M. S. Fee, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, Neuron 31, 903 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, A. J.

Thomas, M. G.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, Science 301, 1702 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsang, M.

Venkataraman, N.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, Science 301, 1702 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, W. W.

Wiersma, D. A.

Williams, R. M.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, Nature Biotechnol. 21, 1369 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wise, F. W.

Zipfel, W. R.

Appl. Opt.

J. Appl. Phys.

Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, K. Shihoyama, and M. Kawachi, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 887 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nature Biotechnol.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, Nature Biotechnol. 21, 1369 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Neuron

F. Helmchen, M. S. Fee, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, Neuron 31, 903 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

D. Bird and M. Gu, Opt. Lett. 28, 1552 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Science

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, Science 301, 1702 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Scanning electron micrograph of the hollow-core PCF fiber. Scale bar, 20 µm. (b) Near-field intensity distribution at the fiber output overlaid on the scanning electron microscope image. Scale bar, 5 µm. (c) Intensity profiles of the near-field distribution along two orthogonal directions. (d) Far-field beam profile at 5.9-mm distance from the fiber end. Scale bar, 0.5 mm. (e) Far-field intensity profiles along two orthogonal directions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Pulse propagation through the hollow-core fiber. (a) Autocorrelation measurements of output pulses at three different wavelengths (250-mW average output power). The interferometric autocorrelations are shown by the black traces, and the intensity autocorrelations are shown by the light curves. (b) Relative broadening of pulse width (filled shapes) and spectral width (open shapes) compared with the corresponding input pulse (170–290 fs). The dashed line indicates 100%. The widths are plotted for average output powers of 2 mW (circles) and 250 mW (triangles). No prechirp was used.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Distortion-free high-energy pulse transmission through the hollow-core fiber. Left, pulse width (top) and spectrum width (bottom) at an 812-nm center wavelength as a function of transmitted average power. The dashed lines indicate the width of the input pulse. Right, interferometric autocorrelation (top; black curve) and spectrum (bottom) for 350-mW output power. Traces are compared with the 170-fs input pulse (gray autocorrelation at the top and dashed spectrum at the bottom). No prechirp was used.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Efficient two-photon excitation through the hollow-core fiber. The two-photon-induced photocurrent in a GaAsP photodiode is plotted as a function of average output power. A quadratic relationship (fit exponent 2.09) was found over the entire range up to 350 mW. Measurements were well below photodiode saturation (400 µA).

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