Abstract

We propose a sampling technique for measuring the shape of ultrashort soft-x-ray pulses. The technique uses the transient state of Kr+ ions that is produced by the femtosecond sequential evolution of Kr ions during optical-field-induced ionization as an ultrafast x-ray-absorption sampling gate. We demonstrate the technique by measuring the pulse shape of the 51st harmonic (15.6 nm) generated by a 100-fs titanium:sapphire laser pulse. The measured pulse duration is 220 fs. Our experimental result confirms that the sequential evolution of Kr+ ions from neutral Kr to Kr2+ is the dominant contribution to the ionization process from the aspect of time-domain measurement.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. K. Kondo, T. Tamida, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, Phys. Rev. A 49, 3881 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. T. E. Glover, A. H. Chin, and R. W. Schoenlein, Phys. Rev. A 63, 023403 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Kobayashi, T. Ohno, T. Sekikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, Appl. Phys. B 70, 389 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Y. Nabekawa, Y. Shimizu, and K. Midorikawa, Opt. Lett. 27, 1265 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (2)

T. Sekikawa, T. Katsura, S. Miura, and S. Watanabe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 193902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nabekawa, Y. Shimizu, and K. Midorikawa, Opt. Lett. 27, 1265 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

T. E. Glover, A. H. Chin, and R. W. Schoenlein, Phys. Rev. A 63, 023403 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, Science 291, 1923 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Nature 414, 509 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Oguri, H. Nakano, T. Nishikawa, and N. Uesugi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4506 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. Le Blanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kobayashi, T. Ohno, T. Sekikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, Appl. Phys. B 70, 389 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

S. Larochelle, A. Talebpour, and S. L. Chin, J. Phys. B 31, 1201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. B. Delone and V. P. Krainov, Sov. Phys. Usp. 41, 469 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kobayashi, T. Sekikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, Opt. Lett. 23, 64 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

Y. Kobayashi, O. Yoshihara, Y. Nabekawa, K. Kondo, and S. Watanabe, Opt. Lett. 21, 417 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, A. H. Chin, and C. V. Shank, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2468 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (3)

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kondo, T. Tamida, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, Phys. Rev. A 49, 3881 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

1986 (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

Agostini, P.

E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. Le Blanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Bouhal, R. Evans, G. Grillon, A. Mysyrowicz, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, and D. von der Linde, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 950 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ammosov, M. V.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

Antonetti, A.

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aumiller, G. D.

Bouhal, A.

Brabec, T.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Nature 414, 509 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breger, P.

E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. Le Blanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Bouhal, R. Evans, G. Grillon, A. Mysyrowicz, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, and D. von der Linde, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 950 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buerke, B.

J. Peatross, B. Buerke, and D. D. Meyerhofer, Phys. Rev. A 47, 1517 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheret, M.

E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. Le Blanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cheriaux, G.

E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. Le Blanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chin, A. H.

T. E. Glover, A. H. Chin, and R. W. Schoenlein, Phys. Rev. A 63, 023403 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, A. H. Chin, and C. V. Shank, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2468 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin, S. L.

S. Larochelle, A. Talebpour, and S. L. Chin, J. Phys. B 31, 1201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Constantinescu, R. C.

A. Bouhal, R. Evans, G. Grillon, A. Mysyrowicz, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, and D. von der Linde, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 950 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Nature 414, 509 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, Science 291, 1923 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delone, N. B.

N. B. Delone and V. P. Krainov, Sov. Phys. Usp. 41, 469 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

DiMauro, L. F.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drescher, M.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, Science 291, 1923 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Nature 414, 509 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, R.

Freeman, R. R.

Glover, T. E.

T. E. Glover, A. H. Chin, and R. W. Schoenlein, Phys. Rev. A 63, 023403 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, A. H. Chin, and C. V. Shank, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2468 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grillon, G.

A. Bouhal, R. Evans, G. Grillon, A. Mysyrowicz, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, and D. von der Linde, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 950 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinzmann, U.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Nature 414, 509 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, Science 291, 1923 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Nature 414, 509 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katsura, T.

T. Sekikawa, T. Katsura, S. Miura, and S. Watanabe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 193902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kienberger, R.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Nature 414, 509 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, Science 291, 1923 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, Y.

Kondo, K.

Krainov, V. P.

N. B. Delone and V. P. Krainov, Sov. Phys. Usp. 41, 469 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

Krausz, F.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Nature 414, 509 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, Science 291, 1923 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kulander, K. C.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larochelle, S.

S. Larochelle, A. Talebpour, and S. L. Chin, J. Phys. B 31, 1201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Le Blanc, C.

E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. Le Blanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meyerhofer, D. D.

J. Peatross, B. Buerke, and D. D. Meyerhofer, Phys. Rev. A 47, 1517 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Midorikawa, K.

Milosevic, N.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Nature 414, 509 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miura, S.

T. Sekikawa, T. Katsura, S. Miura, and S. Watanabe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 193902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mohideen, U.

Muller, H. G.

E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. Le Blanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Bouhal, R. Evans, G. Grillon, A. Mysyrowicz, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, and D. von der Linde, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 950 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mullot, G.

E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. Le Blanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

A. Bouhal, R. Evans, G. Grillon, A. Mysyrowicz, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, and D. von der Linde, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 950 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nabekawa, Y.

Nakano, H.

K. Oguri, H. Nakano, T. Nishikawa, and N. Uesugi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4506 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Oguri, T. Ozaki, T. Nishikawa, and H. Nakano, Appl. Phys. B78, 157 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nishikawa, T.

K. Oguri, H. Nakano, T. Nishikawa, and N. Uesugi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4506 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Oguri, T. Ozaki, T. Nishikawa, and H. Nakano, Appl. Phys. B78, 157 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oguri, K.

K. Oguri, H. Nakano, T. Nishikawa, and N. Uesugi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4506 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Oguri, T. Ozaki, T. Nishikawa, and H. Nakano, Appl. Phys. B78, 157 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ohno, T.

Y. Kobayashi, T. Ohno, T. Sekikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, Appl. Phys. B 70, 389 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, T.

K. Oguri, T. Ozaki, T. Nishikawa, and H. Nakano, Appl. Phys. B78, 157 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Paul, P. M.

E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. Le Blanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Peatross, J.

J. Peatross, B. Buerke, and D. D. Meyerhofer, Phys. Rev. A 47, 1517 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reider, G. A.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, Science 291, 1923 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Nature 414, 509 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schafer, K. J.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schins, J. M.

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schoenlein, R. W.

T. E. Glover, A. H. Chin, and R. W. Schoenlein, Phys. Rev. A 63, 023403 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, A. H. Chin, and C. V. Shank, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2468 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sekikawa, T.

T. Sekikawa, T. Katsura, S. Miura, and S. Watanabe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 193902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kobayashi, T. Ohno, T. Sekikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, Appl. Phys. B 70, 389 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kobayashi, T. Sekikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, Opt. Lett. 23, 64 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shank, C. V.

T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, A. H. Chin, and C. V. Shank, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2468 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheehy, B.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sher, M. H.

Shimizu, Y.

Spielmann, C.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, Science 291, 1923 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spielmann, Ch.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Nature 414, 509 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Talebpour, A.

S. Larochelle, A. Talebpour, and S. L. Chin, J. Phys. B 31, 1201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tamida, T.

K. Kondo, T. Tamida, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, Phys. Rev. A 49, 3881 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tempea, G.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, Science 291, 1923 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tom, H. W. K.

Toma, E. S.

E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. Le Blanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Uesugi, N.

K. Oguri, H. Nakano, T. Nishikawa, and N. Uesugi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4506 (2001).
[CrossRef]

von der Linde, D.

Walker, B.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, S.

T. Sekikawa, T. Katsura, S. Miura, and S. Watanabe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 193902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kobayashi, T. Ohno, T. Sekikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, Appl. Phys. B 70, 389 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kobayashi, T. Sekikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, Opt. Lett. 23, 64 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Time evolution of the charge states in Kr. We spatially integrated the Kr+ time evolution in the area surrounded by the Gaussian-beam radius of the laser pulse, weighting it with the transverse variation of the spatial intensity of the short-wavelength pulse based on the assumption regarding the beam size (see text).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic illustration of the experimental setup. The lighter and darker lines represent the paths of the laser and of the harmonic, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

High-order-harmonic spectra obtained in the presence (solid curve) and in the absence (dashed curve) of the ionizing laser pulse for selected time delays. We defined the zero time delay as that point at which the 51st-harmonic intensity decreased to the minimum.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence on time delay of the intensity of the 51st-harmonic pulse that passed through the Kr gas ionized by the laser pulse at peak intensities of (a) 1×1015 and (b) 5×1014 W/cm2. Each fitting result is represented by a dashed curve.

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