Abstract

We present a new kind of UV-cured holographic grating that consists of polymer slices alternated with pure nematic films. By preventing the appearance of the nematic phase during the curing process, it is possible to avoid the formation of liquid-crystal droplets and obtain a sharp and uniform morphology, which reduces scattering losses and increases diffraction efficiency.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. D. Margerum, A. M. Lackner, E. Ramos, G. W. Smith, N. A. Vaz, J. L. Kohler, and C. R. Allison, “Polymer dispersed liquid crystal film devices,” U.S. patent5,096,282 (March17, 1992).
  2. R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 5, 89 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. E. Lucchetta, R. Karapinar, A. Manni, and F. Simoni, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 6060 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, C. Gizzi, P. Maltese, R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, C. Umeton, and A. Veltri, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 398, 223 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Caputo, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, “Realization of regular layered structures made of thin liquid crystal films separated by slices of polymeric material (POLICRYPS),” Italian patent request TO2003A000530 (July9, 2003).
  6. J. Zhang, C. R. Carlen, S. Palmer, and M. B. Sponsler, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 7055 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. R. Carlen, S. Palmer, J. Zhang, and M. B. Sponsler, Opt. Commun. 111, 433 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, N. V. Tabiryan, C. Umeton, and R. F. Ushakov, Chem. Phys. 271, 323 (2001).
  9. G. Abbate, A. d’Alessandro, and C. Umeton are conducting an investigation entitled “New composite liquid-crystalline materials for opto-electronic devices” under Italian projectPRIN 2003 2003024923.
  10. K. K. Vardanyan, J. Qi, J. N. Eakin, M. De Sarkar, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4736 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. E. Lucchetta, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9669 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (2)

R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, C. Gizzi, P. Maltese, R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, C. Umeton, and A. Veltri, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 398, 223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Lucchetta, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9669 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

K. K. Vardanyan, J. Qi, J. N. Eakin, M. De Sarkar, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4736 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Lucchetta, R. Karapinar, A. Manni, and F. Simoni, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 6060 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, N. V. Tabiryan, C. Umeton, and R. F. Ushakov, Chem. Phys. 271, 323 (2001).

1996 (1)

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 5, 89 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

J. Zhang, C. R. Carlen, S. Palmer, and M. B. Sponsler, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 7055 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Carlen, S. Palmer, J. Zhang, and M. B. Sponsler, Opt. Commun. 111, 433 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Abbate, G.

G. Abbate, A. d’Alessandro, and C. Umeton are conducting an investigation entitled “New composite liquid-crystalline materials for opto-electronic devices” under Italian projectPRIN 2003 2003024923.

Adams, W. W.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 5, 89 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Allison, C. R.

J. D. Margerum, A. M. Lackner, E. Ramos, G. W. Smith, N. A. Vaz, J. L. Kohler, and C. R. Allison, “Polymer dispersed liquid crystal film devices,” U.S. patent5,096,282 (March17, 1992).

Asquini, R.

R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, C. Gizzi, P. Maltese, R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, C. Umeton, and A. Veltri, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 398, 223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bunning, T. J.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 5, 89 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Caputo, R.

R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, C. Gizzi, P. Maltese, R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, C. Umeton, and A. Veltri, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 398, 223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, N. V. Tabiryan, C. Umeton, and R. F. Ushakov, Chem. Phys. 271, 323 (2001).

R. Caputo, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, “Realization of regular layered structures made of thin liquid crystal films separated by slices of polymeric material (POLICRYPS),” Italian patent request TO2003A000530 (July9, 2003).

Carlen, C. R.

J. Zhang, C. R. Carlen, S. Palmer, and M. B. Sponsler, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 7055 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Carlen, S. Palmer, J. Zhang, and M. B. Sponsler, Opt. Commun. 111, 433 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, G. P.

K. K. Vardanyan, J. Qi, J. N. Eakin, M. De Sarkar, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4736 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Criante, L.

D. E. Lucchetta, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9669 (2003).
[CrossRef]

d’Alessandro, A.

R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, C. Gizzi, P. Maltese, R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, C. Umeton, and A. Veltri, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 398, 223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Abbate, A. d’Alessandro, and C. Umeton are conducting an investigation entitled “New composite liquid-crystalline materials for opto-electronic devices” under Italian projectPRIN 2003 2003024923.

De Sarkar, M.

K. K. Vardanyan, J. Qi, J. N. Eakin, M. De Sarkar, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4736 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eakin, J. N.

K. K. Vardanyan, J. Qi, J. N. Eakin, M. De Sarkar, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4736 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gizzi, C.

R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, C. Gizzi, P. Maltese, R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, C. Umeton, and A. Veltri, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 398, 223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Karapinar, R.

D. E. Lucchetta, R. Karapinar, A. Manni, and F. Simoni, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 6060 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kohler, J. L.

J. D. Margerum, A. M. Lackner, E. Ramos, G. W. Smith, N. A. Vaz, J. L. Kohler, and C. R. Allison, “Polymer dispersed liquid crystal film devices,” U.S. patent5,096,282 (March17, 1992).

Lackner, A. M.

J. D. Margerum, A. M. Lackner, E. Ramos, G. W. Smith, N. A. Vaz, J. L. Kohler, and C. R. Allison, “Polymer dispersed liquid crystal film devices,” U.S. patent5,096,282 (March17, 1992).

Lucchetta, D. E.

D. E. Lucchetta, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9669 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Lucchetta, R. Karapinar, A. Manni, and F. Simoni, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 6060 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Maltese, P.

R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, C. Gizzi, P. Maltese, R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, C. Umeton, and A. Veltri, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 398, 223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Manni, A.

D. E. Lucchetta, R. Karapinar, A. Manni, and F. Simoni, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 6060 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Margerum, J. D.

J. D. Margerum, A. M. Lackner, E. Ramos, G. W. Smith, N. A. Vaz, J. L. Kohler, and C. R. Allison, “Polymer dispersed liquid crystal film devices,” U.S. patent5,096,282 (March17, 1992).

Natarajan, L. V.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 5, 89 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, S.

J. Zhang, C. R. Carlen, S. Palmer, and M. B. Sponsler, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 7055 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Carlen, S. Palmer, J. Zhang, and M. B. Sponsler, Opt. Commun. 111, 433 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Qi, J.

K. K. Vardanyan, J. Qi, J. N. Eakin, M. De Sarkar, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4736 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ramos, E.

J. D. Margerum, A. M. Lackner, E. Ramos, G. W. Smith, N. A. Vaz, J. L. Kohler, and C. R. Allison, “Polymer dispersed liquid crystal film devices,” U.S. patent5,096,282 (March17, 1992).

Simoni, F.

D. E. Lucchetta, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9669 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Lucchetta, R. Karapinar, A. Manni, and F. Simoni, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 6060 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G. W.

J. D. Margerum, A. M. Lackner, E. Ramos, G. W. Smith, N. A. Vaz, J. L. Kohler, and C. R. Allison, “Polymer dispersed liquid crystal film devices,” U.S. patent5,096,282 (March17, 1992).

Sponsler, M. B.

J. Zhang, C. R. Carlen, S. Palmer, and M. B. Sponsler, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 7055 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Carlen, S. Palmer, J. Zhang, and M. B. Sponsler, Opt. Commun. 111, 433 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sukhov, A. V.

R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, C. Gizzi, P. Maltese, R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, C. Umeton, and A. Veltri, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 398, 223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, N. V. Tabiryan, C. Umeton, and R. F. Ushakov, Chem. Phys. 271, 323 (2001).

R. Caputo, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, “Realization of regular layered structures made of thin liquid crystal films separated by slices of polymeric material (POLICRYPS),” Italian patent request TO2003A000530 (July9, 2003).

Sutherland, R. L.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 5, 89 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tabiryan, N. V.

R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, N. V. Tabiryan, C. Umeton, and R. F. Ushakov, Chem. Phys. 271, 323 (2001).

R. Caputo, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, “Realization of regular layered structures made of thin liquid crystal films separated by slices of polymeric material (POLICRYPS),” Italian patent request TO2003A000530 (July9, 2003).

Tondiglia, V. P.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 5, 89 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Umeton, C.

R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, C. Gizzi, P. Maltese, R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, C. Umeton, and A. Veltri, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 398, 223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, N. V. Tabiryan, C. Umeton, and R. F. Ushakov, Chem. Phys. 271, 323 (2001).

R. Caputo, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, “Realization of regular layered structures made of thin liquid crystal films separated by slices of polymeric material (POLICRYPS),” Italian patent request TO2003A000530 (July9, 2003).

G. Abbate, A. d’Alessandro, and C. Umeton are conducting an investigation entitled “New composite liquid-crystalline materials for opto-electronic devices” under Italian projectPRIN 2003 2003024923.

Ushakov, R. F.

R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, N. V. Tabiryan, C. Umeton, and R. F. Ushakov, Chem. Phys. 271, 323 (2001).

Vardanyan, K. K.

K. K. Vardanyan, J. Qi, J. N. Eakin, M. De Sarkar, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4736 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vaz, N. A.

J. D. Margerum, A. M. Lackner, E. Ramos, G. W. Smith, N. A. Vaz, J. L. Kohler, and C. R. Allison, “Polymer dispersed liquid crystal film devices,” U.S. patent5,096,282 (March17, 1992).

Veltri, A.

R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, C. Gizzi, P. Maltese, R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, C. Umeton, and A. Veltri, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 398, 223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Caputo, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, “Realization of regular layered structures made of thin liquid crystal films separated by slices of polymeric material (POLICRYPS),” Italian patent request TO2003A000530 (July9, 2003).

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, C. R. Carlen, S. Palmer, and M. B. Sponsler, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 7055 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Carlen, S. Palmer, J. Zhang, and M. B. Sponsler, Opt. Commun. 111, 433 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. K. Vardanyan, J. Qi, J. N. Eakin, M. De Sarkar, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4736 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, N. V. Tabiryan, C. Umeton, and R. F. Ushakov, Chem. Phys. 271, 323 (2001).

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

J. Zhang, C. R. Carlen, S. Palmer, and M. B. Sponsler, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 7055 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

D. E. Lucchetta, R. Karapinar, A. Manni, and F. Simoni, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 6060 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Lucchetta, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9669 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. (1)

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 5, 89 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, C. Gizzi, P. Maltese, R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, C. Umeton, and A. Veltri, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 398, 223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. R. Carlen, S. Palmer, J. Zhang, and M. B. Sponsler, Opt. Commun. 111, 433 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

G. Abbate, A. d’Alessandro, and C. Umeton are conducting an investigation entitled “New composite liquid-crystalline materials for opto-electronic devices” under Italian projectPRIN 2003 2003024923.

R. Caputo, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, “Realization of regular layered structures made of thin liquid crystal films separated by slices of polymeric material (POLICRYPS),” Italian patent request TO2003A000530 (July9, 2003).

J. D. Margerum, A. M. Lackner, E. Ramos, G. W. Smith, N. A. Vaz, J. L. Kohler, and C. R. Allison, “Polymer dispersed liquid crystal film devices,” U.S. patent5,096,282 (March17, 1992).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical setup for UV curing of gratings and their diffraction efficiency measurement. P, polarizer; λ/2, half-wave plate; BE, beam expander; BS, beam splitter; 2θcur, total curing angle; 2θprb, incidence angle of the probe beam; M, mirrors; TC, thermocontroller stage; I, tunable aperture; S, sample; FD, first-order diffracted photodetector; TR, transmitted order photodetector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Applied field dependence of zero-order transmittivity T0 (squares), first-order transmittivity T1 (circles), and total transmittivity TTot (triangles) for (a) a POLICRYPS grating and (b) a PDLC grating at room temperature. Error bars are of the order of the symbol size. The insets show typical (a) POLICRYPS and (b) PDLC grating morphology with the same spatial period, observed under a polarizing optical microscope.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured Switching Times for a POLICRYPS and a PDLC Grating Obtained from the Same Initial Mixture

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