Abstract

A new schematic eye with aspheric surfaces and a radially varying refractive-index distribution lens is proposed. Image quality and spherical aberration are determined by use of ray tracing, and the results are presented as spot diagrams and compared with five existing model eyes. The proposed model provides the best image quality and lowest spherical aberration.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. Smith and D. A. Atchison, The Eye and Visual Optical Instruments (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, England, 1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. H. Emsley, Visual Optics (Butterworth, London, 1952), Vol. 1.
  3. J. P. C. Southall, Helmholtz’s Treatise on Physiological Optics (Optical Society of America, Rochester, N.Y., 1924), Vol. 1.
  4. Y. Le Grand and S. G. Hage, Physiological Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981).
  5. A. C. Koojiman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 1544 (1983).
  6. G. Smith, B. K. Pierscionek, and D. A. Atchison, Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 11, 359 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. T. Kasprzak and E. Jankowska-Kuchta, J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1135 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Nakao and S. Fujimoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1125 (1968).
    [PubMed]
  9. W. S. Jagger, Vision Res. 30, 723 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. K. Pierscionek, Exp. Eye Res. 64, 887 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Sharma, D. Vizia Kumar, and K. A. Ghatak, Appl. Opt. 21, 984 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. The parameters of the eye models used are available from the authors.

1997

B. K. Pierscionek, Exp. Eye Res. 64, 887 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

H. T. Kasprzak and E. Jankowska-Kuchta, J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1135 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991

G. Smith, B. K. Pierscionek, and D. A. Atchison, Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 11, 359 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

W. S. Jagger, Vision Res. 30, 723 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1983

1982

1968

Atchison, D. A.

G. Smith, B. K. Pierscionek, and D. A. Atchison, Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 11, 359 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Smith and D. A. Atchison, The Eye and Visual Optical Instruments (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, England, 1997).
[CrossRef]

Emsley, H. H.

H. H. Emsley, Visual Optics (Butterworth, London, 1952), Vol. 1.

Fujimoto, S.

Ghatak, K. A.

Hage, S. G.

Y. Le Grand and S. G. Hage, Physiological Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981).

Jagger, W. S.

W. S. Jagger, Vision Res. 30, 723 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jankowska-Kuchta, E.

H. T. Kasprzak and E. Jankowska-Kuchta, J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1135 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kasprzak, H. T.

H. T. Kasprzak and E. Jankowska-Kuchta, J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1135 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Koojiman, A. C.

Le Grand, Y.

Y. Le Grand and S. G. Hage, Physiological Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981).

Nakao, S.

Pierscionek, B. K.

B. K. Pierscionek, Exp. Eye Res. 64, 887 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Smith, B. K. Pierscionek, and D. A. Atchison, Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 11, 359 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharma, A.

Smith, G.

G. Smith, B. K. Pierscionek, and D. A. Atchison, Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 11, 359 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Smith and D. A. Atchison, The Eye and Visual Optical Instruments (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, England, 1997).
[CrossRef]

Southall, J. P. C.

J. P. C. Southall, Helmholtz’s Treatise on Physiological Optics (Optical Society of America, Rochester, N.Y., 1924), Vol. 1.

Vizia Kumar, D.

Appl. Opt.

Exp. Eye Res.

B. K. Pierscionek, Exp. Eye Res. 64, 887 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mod. Opt.

H. T. Kasprzak and E. Jankowska-Kuchta, J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1135 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.

G. Smith, B. K. Pierscionek, and D. A. Atchison, Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 11, 359 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res.

W. S. Jagger, Vision Res. 30, 723 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. Smith and D. A. Atchison, The Eye and Visual Optical Instruments (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, England, 1997).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Emsley, Visual Optics (Butterworth, London, 1952), Vol. 1.

J. P. C. Southall, Helmholtz’s Treatise on Physiological Optics (Optical Society of America, Rochester, N.Y., 1924), Vol. 1.

Y. Le Grand and S. G. Hage, Physiological Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981).

The parameters of the eye models used are available from the authors.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagrammatic representation of the refractive-index contours in the (a) equatorial and (b) sagittal planes of the new model. The radial lines show the directions of increasing refractive-index magnitude.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Difference in the second-order moments (in square millimeters) as a function of index distribution coefficient β.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spot diagrams calculated for various model eyes: (a) Emsley, (b) Gullstrand No. 1, (c) Gullstrand No. 2, (d) Le Grand and Hage, (e) Koojiman, (f) proposed (β=0.91). The empty squares indicate the spot diagram in the retinal plane; the filled squares indicate the spot diagram in the plane of best focus. Dimensions are in millimeters.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Distance of the Plane of Best Focus, Value of the Minimal Variance, Axial Length, and Value of the Variance in the Retinal Plane

Equations (2)

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nR=n1-n1-n21-exp-βR1-exp-βRmax,
V=iNdi-d¯2,

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