Abstract

We report the first realization, to our knowledge, of an optical dipole trap inside the active resonator of a laser. The concept, which is demonstrated with a CO2 laser (λ=10.6 µm), combines the advantages of optical power enhancement (up to 1.3-kW peak power) with the intrinsic stability of laser intensity as a result of the feedback of the active laser medium. Two kinds of trapping geometries are presented: a Gaussian trap in a transverse TEM00 mode and a boxlike transverse confinement in a superposition of transverse modes. In addition, longitudinal superlattices are created by two-frequency operation of the laser. Transfer efficiencies of up to 50% from a cesium magneto-optical trap are achieved. Storage times (τ=0.3 s) are mainly limited by the background gas pressure. Possible sources of additional loss of atoms are discussed.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and Yu. B. Ovchninnikov, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42, 95 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Friedman, A. Kaplan, and N. Davidson, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 99 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Chin, V. Vuletić, A. J. Kerman, and S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2717 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. Khaykovich, N. Friedman, S. Baluschev, D. Fathi, and N. Davidson, Europhys. Lett. 50, 454 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. W. H. Pinkse, T. Fischer, P. Maunz, and G. Rempe, Nature 404, 365 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. D. Barrett, J. A. Sauer, and M. S. Chapman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 010404 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. R. Granade, M. E. Gehm, K. M. O’Hara, and J. E. Thomas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 120405 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Jochim, M. Bartenstein, A. Altmeyer, G. Hendl, S. Riedl, C. Chin, J. Hecker Derschlag, and R. Grim, Science, November13, 2003 (10.1126/science.1093280).
  10. A. Mosk, S. Jochim, H. Moritz, Th. Elsässer, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemüller, Opt. Lett. 26, 1837 (2001), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. A. Savard, K. M. O’Hara, and J. E. Thomas, Phys. Rev. A 56, R1095 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Takekoshi and R. Knize, Opt. Lett. 21, 77 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, and C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. Engler, T. Weber, M. Mudrich, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemüller, Phys. Rev. A 62, R031402 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. J. Witteman, The CO2 Laser (Springer, Heidelberg, 1987).

2003 (1)

S. Jochim, M. Bartenstein, A. Altmeyer, G. Hendl, S. Riedl, C. Chin, J. Hecker Derschlag, and R. Grim, Science, November13, 2003 (10.1126/science.1093280).

2002 (2)

N. Friedman, A. Kaplan, and N. Davidson, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 99 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Granade, M. E. Gehm, K. M. O’Hara, and J. E. Thomas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 120405 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

2000 (5)

H. Engler, T. Weber, M. Mudrich, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemüller, Phys. Rev. A 62, R031402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and Yu. B. Ovchninnikov, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42, 95 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Chin, V. Vuletić, A. J. Kerman, and S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2717 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Khaykovich, N. Friedman, S. Baluschev, D. Fathi, and N. Davidson, Europhys. Lett. 50, 454 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. W. H. Pinkse, T. Fischer, P. Maunz, and G. Rempe, Nature 404, 365 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

T. A. Savard, K. M. O’Hara, and J. E. Thomas, Phys. Rev. A 56, R1095 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1990 (1)

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, and C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

S. Chu, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, and A. Cable, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 314 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altmeyer, A.

S. Jochim, M. Bartenstein, A. Altmeyer, G. Hendl, S. Riedl, C. Chin, J. Hecker Derschlag, and R. Grim, Science, November13, 2003 (10.1126/science.1093280).

Ashkin, A.

S. Chu, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, and A. Cable, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 314 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baluschev, S.

L. Khaykovich, N. Friedman, S. Baluschev, D. Fathi, and N. Davidson, Europhys. Lett. 50, 454 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, M. D.

M. D. Barrett, J. A. Sauer, and M. S. Chapman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 010404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bartenstein, M.

S. Jochim, M. Bartenstein, A. Altmeyer, G. Hendl, S. Riedl, C. Chin, J. Hecker Derschlag, and R. Grim, Science, November13, 2003 (10.1126/science.1093280).

Bjorkholm, J. E.

S. Chu, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, and A. Cable, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 314 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cable, A.

S. Chu, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, and A. Cable, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 314 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chapman, M. S.

M. D. Barrett, J. A. Sauer, and M. S. Chapman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 010404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chin, C.

S. Jochim, M. Bartenstein, A. Altmeyer, G. Hendl, S. Riedl, C. Chin, J. Hecker Derschlag, and R. Grim, Science, November13, 2003 (10.1126/science.1093280).

C. Chin, V. Vuletić, A. J. Kerman, and S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2717 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, S.

C. Chin, V. Vuletić, A. J. Kerman, and S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2717 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chu, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, and A. Cable, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 314 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davidson, N.

N. Friedman, A. Kaplan, and N. Davidson, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 99 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Khaykovich, N. Friedman, S. Baluschev, D. Fathi, and N. Davidson, Europhys. Lett. 50, 454 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Elsässer, Th.

Engler, H.

H. Engler, T. Weber, M. Mudrich, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemüller, Phys. Rev. A 62, R031402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fathi, D.

L. Khaykovich, N. Friedman, S. Baluschev, D. Fathi, and N. Davidson, Europhys. Lett. 50, 454 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, T.

P. W. H. Pinkse, T. Fischer, P. Maunz, and G. Rempe, Nature 404, 365 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friedman, N.

N. Friedman, A. Kaplan, and N. Davidson, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 99 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Khaykovich, N. Friedman, S. Baluschev, D. Fathi, and N. Davidson, Europhys. Lett. 50, 454 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gehm, M. E.

S. R. Granade, M. E. Gehm, K. M. O’Hara, and J. E. Thomas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 120405 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Granade, S. R.

S. R. Granade, M. E. Gehm, K. M. O’Hara, and J. E. Thomas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 120405 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grim, R.

S. Jochim, M. Bartenstein, A. Altmeyer, G. Hendl, S. Riedl, C. Chin, J. Hecker Derschlag, and R. Grim, Science, November13, 2003 (10.1126/science.1093280).

Grimm, R.

A. Mosk, S. Jochim, H. Moritz, Th. Elsässer, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemüller, Opt. Lett. 26, 1837 (2001), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

H. Engler, T. Weber, M. Mudrich, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemüller, Phys. Rev. A 62, R031402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and Yu. B. Ovchninnikov, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42, 95 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hecker Derschlag, J.

S. Jochim, M. Bartenstein, A. Altmeyer, G. Hendl, S. Riedl, C. Chin, J. Hecker Derschlag, and R. Grim, Science, November13, 2003 (10.1126/science.1093280).

Hendl, G.

S. Jochim, M. Bartenstein, A. Altmeyer, G. Hendl, S. Riedl, C. Chin, J. Hecker Derschlag, and R. Grim, Science, November13, 2003 (10.1126/science.1093280).

Jochim, S.

S. Jochim, M. Bartenstein, A. Altmeyer, G. Hendl, S. Riedl, C. Chin, J. Hecker Derschlag, and R. Grim, Science, November13, 2003 (10.1126/science.1093280).

A. Mosk, S. Jochim, H. Moritz, Th. Elsässer, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemüller, Opt. Lett. 26, 1837 (2001), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, A.

N. Friedman, A. Kaplan, and N. Davidson, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 99 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kerman, A. J.

C. Chin, V. Vuletić, A. J. Kerman, and S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2717 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khaykovich, L.

L. Khaykovich, N. Friedman, S. Baluschev, D. Fathi, and N. Davidson, Europhys. Lett. 50, 454 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Knize, R.

Maunz, P.

P. W. H. Pinkse, T. Fischer, P. Maunz, and G. Rempe, Nature 404, 365 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monroe, C.

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, and C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moritz, H.

Mosk, A.

Mudrich, M.

H. Engler, T. Weber, M. Mudrich, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemüller, Phys. Rev. A 62, R031402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O’Hara, K. M.

S. R. Granade, M. E. Gehm, K. M. O’Hara, and J. E. Thomas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 120405 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Savard, K. M. O’Hara, and J. E. Thomas, Phys. Rev. A 56, R1095 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ovchninnikov, Yu. B.

R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and Yu. B. Ovchninnikov, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42, 95 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pinkse, P. W. H.

P. W. H. Pinkse, T. Fischer, P. Maunz, and G. Rempe, Nature 404, 365 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rempe, G.

P. W. H. Pinkse, T. Fischer, P. Maunz, and G. Rempe, Nature 404, 365 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riedl, S.

S. Jochim, M. Bartenstein, A. Altmeyer, G. Hendl, S. Riedl, C. Chin, J. Hecker Derschlag, and R. Grim, Science, November13, 2003 (10.1126/science.1093280).

Robinson, H.

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, and C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sauer, J. A.

M. D. Barrett, J. A. Sauer, and M. S. Chapman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 010404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Savard, T. A.

T. A. Savard, K. M. O’Hara, and J. E. Thomas, Phys. Rev. A 56, R1095 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Swann, W.

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, and C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takekoshi, T.

Thomas, J. E.

S. R. Granade, M. E. Gehm, K. M. O’Hara, and J. E. Thomas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 120405 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Savard, K. M. O’Hara, and J. E. Thomas, Phys. Rev. A 56, R1095 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vuletic, V.

C. Chin, V. Vuletić, A. J. Kerman, and S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2717 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, T.

H. Engler, T. Weber, M. Mudrich, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemüller, Phys. Rev. A 62, R031402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weidemüller, M.

A. Mosk, S. Jochim, H. Moritz, Th. Elsässer, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemüller, Opt. Lett. 26, 1837 (2001), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

H. Engler, T. Weber, M. Mudrich, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemüller, Phys. Rev. A 62, R031402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and Yu. B. Ovchninnikov, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42, 95 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wieman, C.

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, and C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Witteman, W. J.

W. J. Witteman, The CO2 Laser (Springer, Heidelberg, 1987).

Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (2)

R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and Yu. B. Ovchninnikov, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42, 95 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Friedman, A. Kaplan, and N. Davidson, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 99 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

L. Khaykovich, N. Friedman, S. Baluschev, D. Fathi, and N. Davidson, Europhys. Lett. 50, 454 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

P. W. H. Pinkse, T. Fischer, P. Maunz, and G. Rempe, Nature 404, 365 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

H. Engler, T. Weber, M. Mudrich, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemüller, Phys. Rev. A 62, R031402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Savard, K. M. O’Hara, and J. E. Thomas, Phys. Rev. A 56, R1095 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, and C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Chin, V. Vuletić, A. J. Kerman, and S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2717 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Barrett, J. A. Sauer, and M. S. Chapman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 010404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Granade, M. E. Gehm, K. M. O’Hara, and J. E. Thomas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 120405 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Chu, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, and A. Cable, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 314 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

S. Jochim, M. Bartenstein, A. Altmeyer, G. Hendl, S. Riedl, C. Chin, J. Hecker Derschlag, and R. Grim, Science, November13, 2003 (10.1126/science.1093280).

Other (1)

W. J. Witteman, The CO2 Laser (Springer, Heidelberg, 1987).

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