Abstract

Intense radiation in the terahertz (THz) frequency range can be generated by focusing of an ultrashort laser pulse composed of both a fundamental wave and its second-harmonic field into air, as reported previously by Cook et al. [Opt. Lett. 25, 1210 (2000)]. We identify a threshold for THz generation that proves that generation of a plasma is required and that the nonlinearity of air is insufficient to explain our measurements. An additional THz field component generated in the type I β-barium borate crystal used for second-harmonic generation has to be considered if one is to avoid misinterpretation of this kind of experiment. We conclude with a comparison that shows that the plasma emitter is competitive with other state-of-the-art THz emitters.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. J. Cook and R. M. Hochstrasser, Opt. Lett. 25, 1210 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. J. Cook, J.-X. Chen, and R. M. Hochstrasser, in Ultrafast Phenomena XII, T. Elsaesser, S. Mukamel, M. M. Murnane, and N. F. Scherer, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2000), p. 197.
  3. T. Löffler, S. Eden, M. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, in Ultrafast Phenomena XIII, R. D. Miller, M. M. Murnane, N. F. Scherer, and A. M. Weiner, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2002), p. 274.
  4. B. B. Hu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 506 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. V. Dmitriev, G. Gurzadyan, and D. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1989).
  7. T. Löffler, “Erzeugung intensiver Pulse im Terahertzfrequenzbereich mittels laser-generierter Plasmen,” Ph.D. dissertation (Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany, 2003), http://www.rz.uni-frankfurt.de/piweb/femto/index.html .
  8. S. Augst, D. D. Meyerhofer, D. Strickland, and S. L. Chin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 858 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Löffler, F. Jacob, and H. G. Roskos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 453 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Löffler and H. G. Roskos, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 2611 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, Phys. Rev. E 58, 4903 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. You, R. R. Jones, and P. H. Bucksbaum, Opt. Lett. 18, 290 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, and R. W. Falcone, Phys. Rev. E 49, 671 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Hamster, “Generation of subpicosecond terahertz radiation by laser-produced plasmas,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, Calif., 1993).

2002 (1)

T. Löffler and H. G. Roskos, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 2611 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

T. Löffler, F. Jacob, and H. G. Roskos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 453 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Cook and R. M. Hochstrasser, Opt. Lett. 25, 1210 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, Phys. Rev. E 58, 4903 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, and R. W. Falcone, Phys. Rev. E 49, 671 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

B. B. Hu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 506 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Augst, S.

Bucksbaum, P. H.

Chen, J.-X.

D. J. Cook, J.-X. Chen, and R. M. Hochstrasser, in Ultrafast Phenomena XII, T. Elsaesser, S. Mukamel, M. M. Murnane, and N. F. Scherer, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2000), p. 197.

Chin, S. L.

Cook, D. J.

D. J. Cook and R. M. Hochstrasser, Opt. Lett. 25, 1210 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Cook, J.-X. Chen, and R. M. Hochstrasser, in Ultrafast Phenomena XII, T. Elsaesser, S. Mukamel, M. M. Murnane, and N. F. Scherer, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2000), p. 197.

Dmitriev, V.

V. Dmitriev, G. Gurzadyan, and D. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997).
[CrossRef]

Eden, S.

T. Löffler, S. Eden, M. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, in Ultrafast Phenomena XIII, R. D. Miller, M. M. Murnane, N. F. Scherer, and A. M. Weiner, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2002), p. 274.

Falcone, R. W.

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, and R. W. Falcone, Phys. Rev. E 49, 671 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, S.

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, and R. W. Falcone, Phys. Rev. E 49, 671 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gurzadyan, G.

V. Dmitriev, G. Gurzadyan, and D. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997).
[CrossRef]

Hamster, H.

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, and R. W. Falcone, Phys. Rev. E 49, 671 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Hamster, “Generation of subpicosecond terahertz radiation by laser-produced plasmas,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, Calif., 1993).

Hochstrasser, R. M.

D. J. Cook and R. M. Hochstrasser, Opt. Lett. 25, 1210 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Cook, J.-X. Chen, and R. M. Hochstrasser, in Ultrafast Phenomena XII, T. Elsaesser, S. Mukamel, M. M. Murnane, and N. F. Scherer, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2000), p. 197.

Hu, B. B.

B. B. Hu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 506 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jacob, F.

T. Löffler, F. Jacob, and H. G. Roskos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 453 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R. R.

Löffler, T.

T. Löffler and H. G. Roskos, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 2611 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Löffler, F. Jacob, and H. G. Roskos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 453 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Löffler, S. Eden, M. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, in Ultrafast Phenomena XIII, R. D. Miller, M. M. Murnane, N. F. Scherer, and A. M. Weiner, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2002), p. 274.

T. Löffler, “Erzeugung intensiver Pulse im Terahertzfrequenzbereich mittels laser-generierter Plasmen,” Ph.D. dissertation (Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany, 2003), http://www.rz.uni-frankfurt.de/piweb/femto/index.html .

Meyerhofer, D. D.

Mlejnek, M.

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, Phys. Rev. E 58, 4903 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, J. V.

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, Phys. Rev. E 58, 4903 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nikogosyan, D.

V. Dmitriev, G. Gurzadyan, and D. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997).
[CrossRef]

Roskos, H. G.

T. Löffler and H. G. Roskos, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 2611 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Löffler, F. Jacob, and H. G. Roskos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 453 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Löffler, S. Eden, M. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, in Ultrafast Phenomena XIII, R. D. Miller, M. M. Murnane, N. F. Scherer, and A. M. Weiner, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2002), p. 274.

Strickland, D.

Sullivan, A.

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, and R. W. Falcone, Phys. Rev. E 49, 671 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, M.

T. Löffler, S. Eden, M. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, in Ultrafast Phenomena XIII, R. D. Miller, M. M. Murnane, N. F. Scherer, and A. M. Weiner, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2002), p. 274.

Wright, E. M.

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, Phys. Rev. E 58, 4903 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1989).

You, D.

Zhang, X.-C.

B. B. Hu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 506 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

B. B. Hu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 506 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. Löffler, F. Jacob, and H. G. Roskos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 453 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Löffler and H. G. Roskos, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 2611 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. E (2)

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, Phys. Rev. E 58, 4903 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, and R. W. Falcone, Phys. Rev. E 49, 671 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

H. Hamster, “Generation of subpicosecond terahertz radiation by laser-produced plasmas,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, Calif., 1993).

V. Dmitriev, G. Gurzadyan, and D. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1989).

T. Löffler, “Erzeugung intensiver Pulse im Terahertzfrequenzbereich mittels laser-generierter Plasmen,” Ph.D. dissertation (Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany, 2003), http://www.rz.uni-frankfurt.de/piweb/femto/index.html .

D. J. Cook, J.-X. Chen, and R. M. Hochstrasser, in Ultrafast Phenomena XII, T. Elsaesser, S. Mukamel, M. M. Murnane, and N. F. Scherer, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2000), p. 197.

T. Löffler, S. Eden, M. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, in Ultrafast Phenomena XIII, R. D. Miller, M. M. Murnane, N. F. Scherer, and A. M. Weiner, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2002), p. 274.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) SHG efficiency and detected THz signal from (b) the focus and (c) the BBO crystal as a function of crystal rotation angle.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

THz amplitude versus BBO-to-focus distance (with focal length f=200 mm).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

THz amplitude versus laser pulse energy for various sources (for details, see text).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of tabletop THz emitters. You et al. refers to Ref. 12; Hamster et al., to Ref. 14.

Equations (1)

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EdetTHzpplχ3Eω2E2ω sinφ.

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