Abstract

We describe the use of optical phase conjugation (OPC) to suppress intrachannel nonlinearities that limit pseudolinear transmission. We show that OPC combined with appropriate dispersion mapping is effective in suppressing intrachannel nonlinearities, even in the absence of signal-power evolution symmetry that is generally required by OPC to compensate fiber nonlinearity. An increase in signal power by 5.5 dB is observed when a single OPC is used for 40-Gbit/s pseudolinear transmission over 32×100 km of passive-fiber spans.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Yariv, D. Fekete, and D. M. Pepper, Opt. Lett. 4, 52 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. H. Gnauck, R. M. Jopson, and R. M. Derosier, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 663 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. A. Fisher, B. R. Suydam, and D. Yevick, Opt. Lett. 8, 611 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. Kikuchi and C. Lorattanasane, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 104 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. I. Brener, B. Mikkelsen, K. Rottwitt, W. Burkett, G. Raybon, J. B. Stark, K. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, R. Harel, D. L. Philen, and S. Kosinski, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 37 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper PD33-1.
  6. J. Bromage, P. J. Winzer, and R.-J. Essiambre, in Raman Amplifiers and Oscillators in Telecommunications, M. N. Islam, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003).
  7. R.-J. Essiambre, G. Raybon, and B. Mikkelsen, in Optical Fiber Telecommunications IV B, I. P. Kaminow and T. Li, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2002).
  8. A. Mecozzi, C. B. Clausen, M. Shtaif, S.-G. Park, and A. H. Gnauck, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 445 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. The signs of the imaginary terms in the denominator of Eq. (1) should all be positive, as it appears in Ref. 7.
  10. A. Mecozzi, C. B. Clausen, and M. Shtaif, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1633 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. Forysiak and N. J. Doran, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 850 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

2001

A. Mecozzi, C. B. Clausen, M. Shtaif, S.-G. Park, and A. H. Gnauck, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 445 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

A. Mecozzi, C. B. Clausen, and M. Shtaif, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1633 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995

W. Forysiak and N. J. Doran, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 850 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

K. Kikuchi and C. Lorattanasane, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 104 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

A. H. Gnauck, R. M. Jopson, and R. M. Derosier, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 663 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1983

1979

Brener, I.

I. Brener, B. Mikkelsen, K. Rottwitt, W. Burkett, G. Raybon, J. B. Stark, K. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, R. Harel, D. L. Philen, and S. Kosinski, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 37 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper PD33-1.

Bromage, J.

J. Bromage, P. J. Winzer, and R.-J. Essiambre, in Raman Amplifiers and Oscillators in Telecommunications, M. N. Islam, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003).

Burkett, W.

I. Brener, B. Mikkelsen, K. Rottwitt, W. Burkett, G. Raybon, J. B. Stark, K. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, R. Harel, D. L. Philen, and S. Kosinski, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 37 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper PD33-1.

Chaban, E. E.

I. Brener, B. Mikkelsen, K. Rottwitt, W. Burkett, G. Raybon, J. B. Stark, K. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, R. Harel, D. L. Philen, and S. Kosinski, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 37 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper PD33-1.

Chou, M. H.

I. Brener, B. Mikkelsen, K. Rottwitt, W. Burkett, G. Raybon, J. B. Stark, K. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, R. Harel, D. L. Philen, and S. Kosinski, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 37 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper PD33-1.

Clausen, C. B.

A. Mecozzi, C. B. Clausen, M. Shtaif, S.-G. Park, and A. H. Gnauck, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 445 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Mecozzi, C. B. Clausen, and M. Shtaif, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1633 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Derosier, R. M.

A. H. Gnauck, R. M. Jopson, and R. M. Derosier, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 663 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Doran, N. J.

W. Forysiak and N. J. Doran, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 850 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Essiambre, R.-J.

J. Bromage, P. J. Winzer, and R.-J. Essiambre, in Raman Amplifiers and Oscillators in Telecommunications, M. N. Islam, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003).

R.-J. Essiambre, G. Raybon, and B. Mikkelsen, in Optical Fiber Telecommunications IV B, I. P. Kaminow and T. Li, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2002).

Fejer, M. M.

I. Brener, B. Mikkelsen, K. Rottwitt, W. Burkett, G. Raybon, J. B. Stark, K. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, R. Harel, D. L. Philen, and S. Kosinski, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 37 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper PD33-1.

Fekete, D.

Fisher, R. A.

Forysiak, W.

W. Forysiak and N. J. Doran, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 850 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gnauck, A. H.

A. Mecozzi, C. B. Clausen, M. Shtaif, S.-G. Park, and A. H. Gnauck, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 445 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Gnauck, R. M. Jopson, and R. M. Derosier, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 663 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Harel, R.

I. Brener, B. Mikkelsen, K. Rottwitt, W. Burkett, G. Raybon, J. B. Stark, K. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, R. Harel, D. L. Philen, and S. Kosinski, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 37 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper PD33-1.

Jopson, R. M.

A. H. Gnauck, R. M. Jopson, and R. M. Derosier, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 663 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, K.

K. Kikuchi and C. Lorattanasane, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 104 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kosinski, S.

I. Brener, B. Mikkelsen, K. Rottwitt, W. Burkett, G. Raybon, J. B. Stark, K. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, R. Harel, D. L. Philen, and S. Kosinski, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 37 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper PD33-1.

Lorattanasane, C.

K. Kikuchi and C. Lorattanasane, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 104 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mecozzi, A.

A. Mecozzi, C. B. Clausen, M. Shtaif, S.-G. Park, and A. H. Gnauck, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 445 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Mecozzi, C. B. Clausen, and M. Shtaif, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1633 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mikkelsen, B.

R.-J. Essiambre, G. Raybon, and B. Mikkelsen, in Optical Fiber Telecommunications IV B, I. P. Kaminow and T. Li, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2002).

I. Brener, B. Mikkelsen, K. Rottwitt, W. Burkett, G. Raybon, J. B. Stark, K. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, R. Harel, D. L. Philen, and S. Kosinski, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 37 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper PD33-1.

Parameswaran, K.

I. Brener, B. Mikkelsen, K. Rottwitt, W. Burkett, G. Raybon, J. B. Stark, K. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, R. Harel, D. L. Philen, and S. Kosinski, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 37 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper PD33-1.

Park, S.-G.

A. Mecozzi, C. B. Clausen, M. Shtaif, S.-G. Park, and A. H. Gnauck, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 445 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pepper, D. M.

Philen, D. L.

I. Brener, B. Mikkelsen, K. Rottwitt, W. Burkett, G. Raybon, J. B. Stark, K. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, R. Harel, D. L. Philen, and S. Kosinski, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 37 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper PD33-1.

Raybon, G.

I. Brener, B. Mikkelsen, K. Rottwitt, W. Burkett, G. Raybon, J. B. Stark, K. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, R. Harel, D. L. Philen, and S. Kosinski, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 37 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper PD33-1.

R.-J. Essiambre, G. Raybon, and B. Mikkelsen, in Optical Fiber Telecommunications IV B, I. P. Kaminow and T. Li, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2002).

Rottwitt, K.

I. Brener, B. Mikkelsen, K. Rottwitt, W. Burkett, G. Raybon, J. B. Stark, K. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, R. Harel, D. L. Philen, and S. Kosinski, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 37 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper PD33-1.

Shtaif, M.

A. Mecozzi, C. B. Clausen, M. Shtaif, S.-G. Park, and A. H. Gnauck, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 445 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Mecozzi, C. B. Clausen, and M. Shtaif, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1633 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stark, J. B.

I. Brener, B. Mikkelsen, K. Rottwitt, W. Burkett, G. Raybon, J. B. Stark, K. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, R. Harel, D. L. Philen, and S. Kosinski, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 37 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper PD33-1.

Suydam, B. R.

Winzer, P. J.

J. Bromage, P. J. Winzer, and R.-J. Essiambre, in Raman Amplifiers and Oscillators in Telecommunications, M. N. Islam, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003).

Yariv, A.

Yevick, D.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

K. Kikuchi and C. Lorattanasane, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 104 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Mecozzi, C. B. Clausen, M. Shtaif, S.-G. Park, and A. H. Gnauck, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 445 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Mecozzi, C. B. Clausen, and M. Shtaif, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1633 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Gnauck, R. M. Jopson, and R. M. Derosier, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 663 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

W. Forysiak and N. J. Doran, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 850 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

The signs of the imaginary terms in the denominator of Eq. (1) should all be positive, as it appears in Ref. 7.

I. Brener, B. Mikkelsen, K. Rottwitt, W. Burkett, G. Raybon, J. B. Stark, K. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, R. Harel, D. L. Philen, and S. Kosinski, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 37 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper PD33-1.

J. Bromage, P. J. Winzer, and R.-J. Essiambre, in Raman Amplifiers and Oscillators in Telecommunications, M. N. Islam, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003).

R.-J. Essiambre, G. Raybon, and B. Mikkelsen, in Optical Fiber Telecommunications IV B, I. P. Kaminow and T. Li, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2002).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dispersion map to minimize the first quadrature field of intrachannel nonlinearities and location for a single optical phase conjugator to cancel the second quadrature field without affecting the dispersion map. NRD, net residual dispersion.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

OSNRpen as a function of signal launch power per channel at the input of each span for the system described in Table 1 and the dispersion map of Fig. 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Eye and phase-space diagrams with and without OPC in the line of Fig. 1 for the single-channel case. All fields are normalized to their average power (n.u., normalized unit). Eye diagrams (no electrical filter): (a) 0 dBm, no OPC; (b) 0 dBm, with OPC; (c) -3.6 dBm, no OPC, 2-dB OSNRpen; (d) +2.4 dBm, with OPC, 2-dB OSNRpen. Phase-space diagrams (e) and (f) correspond to eye diagrams (c) and (d), respectively, and show the effective squeezing of the second quadrature component of the field by the optical phase conjugator. For reference, the two states of zeros and ones after transmission in the absence of nonlinearity, or back to back (B2B), are indicated in (e) by filled circles.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Fiber and System Parameters of the Transmission Line Considered

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ΔBm,n,pL,t+Tpert=γ expiθm+θp-θn×Bin3 exp-16t2T020Ldzisz1+2iCz+3Cz2×exp-32t/3+tm-tn2t/3+tp-tnT021+3iCz-tm-tp2T021+2iCz+3Cz2,
Cpre=-Nspan×RDPS/2+D/α ln1+exp-α*Lspan2.
ΔB=γBin3 exp-16t2T020Ldzisz1-2iCz+3Cz21+3Cz22+4Cz2×exp-32t/3+tm-tn2t/3+tp-tn1+Cz2-tm-tp21+3Cz2T021+3Cz22+4Cz2×cos32t/3+tm-tn2t/3+tp-tn3Cz+3Cz3-2Cztm-tp2T021+3Cz22+4Cz2-i sin32t/3+tm-tn2t/3+tp-tn3Cz+3Cz3-2Cztm-tp2T021+3Cz22+4Cz2.

Metrics