Abstract

The type of donor used is found to influence greatly the optical nonlinearities of iodine charge-transfer (CT) complexes in solutions for several solvents. The magnitude and sign changes of nonlinear absorption of iodine CT complexes for different solvents as donors are observed, which implies the transition from saturable absorption to reverse saturable absorption. Compared with C60 in toluene, iodine CT complexes with toluene and benzene demonstrate larger reverse saturable absorption. Meanwhile, flexible alteration of optical nonlinearities is easily obtained by adjusting the mixture ratio of different solvents, yielding a prospective means of constructing a nonlinear medium with a large nonlinear coefficient.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. R. Marder, W. E. Torruellas, B. D. Mirelle, V. Ricci, G. I. Stegeman, S. Gilmour, J. L. Bredas, J. Li, G. U. Bublitz, and S. G. Boxer, Science 276, 1233 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. P. Kiran, D. R. Reddy, B. G. Maiya, A. K. Dharmadhikari, G. R. Kumar, and N. R. Desai, Appl. Opt. 41, 7631 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Cha, N. S. Sariciftci, A. J. Heeger, and J. C. Hummelen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3850 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Foster, Molecular Association (Academic, London, 1975), Vol. 1.
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    [CrossRef]
  7. L. A. Walker, S. Pullen, B. Donovan, and R. J. Sension, Chem. Phys. Lett. 242, 177 (1995).
  8. B. F. Levine and C. G. Bethea, J. Chem. Phys. 65, 2439 (1976).
  9. M. Ichida, T. Sohda, and A. Nakamura, J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 7082 (2000).
  10. A. B. Villaverde, J. Phys. B 13, 1817 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. I. Kovsh, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Express 4, 315 (1999), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. Barroso, A. Costela, I. G. Moreno, and J. L. Saiz, J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 2527 (1998).

2002 (1)

2000 (2)

H. Kishida, H. Matsuzaki, H. Okamoto, T. Manabe, M. Yamashita, Y. Taguchi, and Y. Tokura, Nature 405, 929 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ichida, T. Sohda, and A. Nakamura, J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 7082 (2000).

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

J. Barroso, A. Costela, I. G. Moreno, and J. L. Saiz, J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 2527 (1998).

1997 (1)

S. R. Marder, W. E. Torruellas, B. D. Mirelle, V. Ricci, G. I. Stegeman, S. Gilmour, J. L. Bredas, J. Li, G. U. Bublitz, and S. G. Boxer, Science 276, 1233 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

M. Cha, N. S. Sariciftci, A. J. Heeger, and J. C. Hummelen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3850 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Walker, S. Pullen, B. Donovan, and R. J. Sension, Chem. Phys. Lett. 242, 177 (1995).

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

A. B. Villaverde, J. Phys. B 13, 1817 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

B. F. Levine and C. G. Bethea, J. Chem. Phys. 65, 2439 (1976).

Barroso, J.

J. Barroso, A. Costela, I. G. Moreno, and J. L. Saiz, J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 2527 (1998).

Bethea, C. G.

B. F. Levine and C. G. Bethea, J. Chem. Phys. 65, 2439 (1976).

Boxer, S. G.

S. R. Marder, W. E. Torruellas, B. D. Mirelle, V. Ricci, G. I. Stegeman, S. Gilmour, J. L. Bredas, J. Li, G. U. Bublitz, and S. G. Boxer, Science 276, 1233 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bredas, J. L.

S. R. Marder, W. E. Torruellas, B. D. Mirelle, V. Ricci, G. I. Stegeman, S. Gilmour, J. L. Bredas, J. Li, G. U. Bublitz, and S. G. Boxer, Science 276, 1233 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bublitz, G. U.

S. R. Marder, W. E. Torruellas, B. D. Mirelle, V. Ricci, G. I. Stegeman, S. Gilmour, J. L. Bredas, J. Li, G. U. Bublitz, and S. G. Boxer, Science 276, 1233 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cha, M.

M. Cha, N. S. Sariciftci, A. J. Heeger, and J. C. Hummelen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3850 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Costela, A.

J. Barroso, A. Costela, I. G. Moreno, and J. L. Saiz, J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 2527 (1998).

Desai, N. R.

Dharmadhikari, A. K.

Donovan, B.

L. A. Walker, S. Pullen, B. Donovan, and R. J. Sension, Chem. Phys. Lett. 242, 177 (1995).

Foster, R.

R. Foster, Molecular Association (Academic, London, 1975), Vol. 1.

Gilmour, S.

S. R. Marder, W. E. Torruellas, B. D. Mirelle, V. Ricci, G. I. Stegeman, S. Gilmour, J. L. Bredas, J. Li, G. U. Bublitz, and S. G. Boxer, Science 276, 1233 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hagan, D. J.

D. I. Kovsh, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Express 4, 315 (1999), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Heeger, A. J.

M. Cha, N. S. Sariciftci, A. J. Heeger, and J. C. Hummelen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3850 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hummelen, J. C.

M. Cha, N. S. Sariciftci, A. J. Heeger, and J. C. Hummelen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3850 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ichida, M.

M. Ichida, T. Sohda, and A. Nakamura, J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 7082 (2000).

Kiran, P. P.

Kishida, H.

H. Kishida, H. Matsuzaki, H. Okamoto, T. Manabe, M. Yamashita, Y. Taguchi, and Y. Tokura, Nature 405, 929 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kovsh, D. I.

Kumar, G. R.

Levine, B. F.

B. F. Levine and C. G. Bethea, J. Chem. Phys. 65, 2439 (1976).

Li, J.

S. R. Marder, W. E. Torruellas, B. D. Mirelle, V. Ricci, G. I. Stegeman, S. Gilmour, J. L. Bredas, J. Li, G. U. Bublitz, and S. G. Boxer, Science 276, 1233 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maiya, B. G.

Manabe, T.

H. Kishida, H. Matsuzaki, H. Okamoto, T. Manabe, M. Yamashita, Y. Taguchi, and Y. Tokura, Nature 405, 929 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marder, S. R.

S. R. Marder, W. E. Torruellas, B. D. Mirelle, V. Ricci, G. I. Stegeman, S. Gilmour, J. L. Bredas, J. Li, G. U. Bublitz, and S. G. Boxer, Science 276, 1233 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsuzaki, H.

H. Kishida, H. Matsuzaki, H. Okamoto, T. Manabe, M. Yamashita, Y. Taguchi, and Y. Tokura, Nature 405, 929 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirelle, B. D.

S. R. Marder, W. E. Torruellas, B. D. Mirelle, V. Ricci, G. I. Stegeman, S. Gilmour, J. L. Bredas, J. Li, G. U. Bublitz, and S. G. Boxer, Science 276, 1233 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moreno, I. G.

J. Barroso, A. Costela, I. G. Moreno, and J. L. Saiz, J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 2527 (1998).

Nakamura, A.

M. Ichida, T. Sohda, and A. Nakamura, J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 7082 (2000).

Okamoto, H.

H. Kishida, H. Matsuzaki, H. Okamoto, T. Manabe, M. Yamashita, Y. Taguchi, and Y. Tokura, Nature 405, 929 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pullen, S.

L. A. Walker, S. Pullen, B. Donovan, and R. J. Sension, Chem. Phys. Lett. 242, 177 (1995).

Reddy, D. R.

Ricci, V.

S. R. Marder, W. E. Torruellas, B. D. Mirelle, V. Ricci, G. I. Stegeman, S. Gilmour, J. L. Bredas, J. Li, G. U. Bublitz, and S. G. Boxer, Science 276, 1233 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Saiz, J. L.

J. Barroso, A. Costela, I. G. Moreno, and J. L. Saiz, J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 2527 (1998).

Sariciftci, N. S.

M. Cha, N. S. Sariciftci, A. J. Heeger, and J. C. Hummelen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3850 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sension, R. J.

L. A. Walker, S. Pullen, B. Donovan, and R. J. Sension, Chem. Phys. Lett. 242, 177 (1995).

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sohda, T.

M. Ichida, T. Sohda, and A. Nakamura, J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 7082 (2000).

Stegeman, G. I.

S. R. Marder, W. E. Torruellas, B. D. Mirelle, V. Ricci, G. I. Stegeman, S. Gilmour, J. L. Bredas, J. Li, G. U. Bublitz, and S. G. Boxer, Science 276, 1233 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taguchi, Y.

H. Kishida, H. Matsuzaki, H. Okamoto, T. Manabe, M. Yamashita, Y. Taguchi, and Y. Tokura, Nature 405, 929 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tokura, Y.

H. Kishida, H. Matsuzaki, H. Okamoto, T. Manabe, M. Yamashita, Y. Taguchi, and Y. Tokura, Nature 405, 929 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torruellas, W. E.

S. R. Marder, W. E. Torruellas, B. D. Mirelle, V. Ricci, G. I. Stegeman, S. Gilmour, J. L. Bredas, J. Li, G. U. Bublitz, and S. G. Boxer, Science 276, 1233 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Stryland, E. W.

D. I. Kovsh, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Express 4, 315 (1999), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Villaverde, A. B.

A. B. Villaverde, J. Phys. B 13, 1817 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Walker, L. A.

L. A. Walker, S. Pullen, B. Donovan, and R. J. Sension, Chem. Phys. Lett. 242, 177 (1995).

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, M.

H. Kishida, H. Matsuzaki, H. Okamoto, T. Manabe, M. Yamashita, Y. Taguchi, and Y. Tokura, Nature 405, 929 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yarwood, J.

J. Yarwood, Spectroscopy and Structure of Molecular Complexes (Plenum, London, 1973).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Cha, N. S. Sariciftci, A. J. Heeger, and J. C. Hummelen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3850 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. A. Walker, S. Pullen, B. Donovan, and R. J. Sension, Chem. Phys. Lett. 242, 177 (1995).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

B. F. Levine and C. G. Bethea, J. Chem. Phys. 65, 2439 (1976).

J. Phys. B (1)

A. B. Villaverde, J. Phys. B 13, 1817 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. A (1)

J. Barroso, A. Costela, I. G. Moreno, and J. L. Saiz, J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 2527 (1998).

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

M. Ichida, T. Sohda, and A. Nakamura, J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 7082 (2000).

Nature (1)

H. Kishida, H. Matsuzaki, H. Okamoto, T. Manabe, M. Yamashita, Y. Taguchi, and Y. Tokura, Nature 405, 929 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Science (1)

S. R. Marder, W. E. Torruellas, B. D. Mirelle, V. Ricci, G. I. Stegeman, S. Gilmour, J. L. Bredas, J. Li, G. U. Bublitz, and S. G. Boxer, Science 276, 1233 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

R. Foster, Molecular Association (Academic, London, 1975), Vol. 1.

J. Yarwood, Spectroscopy and Structure of Molecular Complexes (Plenum, London, 1973).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

UV absorption spectra of iodine CT complexes with different organic solvents.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Open-aperture Z-scan curves of iodine CT complexes. The input peak intensity I0 is 2.1×1013 W/m2, sample length L is 1 mm, and beam waist radius ω0 is 22 µm. Solid curves are the best fits.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Z-scan curves of iodine CT complexes for purely NLR obtained through dividing the closed-aperture data by the open-aperture data. Linear transmittance S=0.094; the other parameters are the same as in Fig. 2. Solid curves are the best fits.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ratios of σCT to σ0 for iodine CT complexes versus the percentage of the contents of toluene and ethanol in the mixed solutions of toluene and CH2Cl2 and ethanol and CH2Cl2. The inset shows the UV absorption spectra of iodine CT complexes in the mixed solutions of toluene and CH2Cl2. The percentage represents the content of toluene in the mixed solutions with CH2Cl2.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Experimental and Fitting Parameters of Iodine CT Complexes

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dIdz=-σ0N0tI-σCTNCTtI,
dN0dt=-σ0N0Iω+NCTτCT,
dNCTdt=σ0N0Iω-NCTτCT,
dϕdz=σrNCTt+n2sovI,

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